APTERYGIDAE (6 species)
Family endemic to NZ. Traditionally considered 3 species, Brown Kiwi, Little Spotted Kiwi, and Great Spotted Kiwi, but genetic studies indicate that Brown Kiwi may consist of as many as 5 species (Baker et al 1995, Herbert and Daugherty 2002, Burbidge et al 2003). All species are sedentary.A. owenii Little Spotted Kiwi
Res NZ 1500 inds (Kapiti I 1000, presumed native, Herbert and Daugherty 2002, although genetic evidence indicates origin in SI; 5 from Jackson Bay were released on Kapiti I Oct 1912 by Phillips Turner, supported by mDNA evidence that the Kapiti I birds are descended from only 2 females; Hugh Robertson, Forest and Bird #346 Nov 2012). Extirp NI, SI, D'Urville I; int Hen I 50, Red Mercury I 50, Tiritiri Matangi I 80+, Long I 10, including the 2 surviving D'Urville Island birds; recent genetic studies suggest that there are no longer D'Urville genes present (Helen Taylor); reint Karori Sanctuary, Wellington. Translocations in progress Chalky I and Motuihe I (Miskelly and Powlesland 2013). Two hybrids of Little Spotted and Okarito Brown Kiwis were relocated to Allports I, Queen Charlotte Sound, in 2006 (Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).
NOTE: Extinct North Island form has been separated as iredalei (Dickinson 2003). See comments under A. haastii, below.
A. haastii Great Spotted Kiwi
Res NZ (SI 22,000 in 3 populations, McLennan and McCann 2002: extreme nw SI between Buller River and Golden Bay 12-13,000 inds; Paparoa Range 6300 inds; between Lake Sumner and Arthur's Pass Village, mostly south of the North Hurunui and Taramakau Rivers, 3000 inds). Reint (SI: Rotoiti Nature Recovery Project Area 5-10 prs, has bred). Extirpated rather recently from the area between Lake Kaniere and Arthur's Pass and northward east of Lake Brunner to the Victoria and Brunner Ranges. Original range may have extended as far south as the Karangarua River (McLennan and McCann 2002).
NOTE: Sightings of birds that appear morphologically to be this species in South Westland are questionable; such a specimen taken in 1992 near Franz Josef was actually a hybrid of Rowi and possibly Little Spotted Kiwi (Robertson et al 2005). Intriguingly, however, Herbert and Daugherty (2002) raise the possibility that instead of Little Spotted Kiwi as a parent, the Franz Josef hybrid may have resulted from parental Rowi and West Coast Spotted Kiwi (A. occidentalis), the latter described by Rothschild as being bigger than A. owenii. Its type was taken in the Franz Josef area, but Herbert and Daugherty (2002) caution that occidentalis may itself have been a hybrid between Rowi and Little Spotted Kiwi.
A. australis Southern Brown Kiwi (Southern Tokoeka)
A. a. australis Res NZ (SI: Fiordland 5000 inds, NZ Dept. Cons., including successful translocations to islands in Fiordland, Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).
NOTE: While allozyme studies in Baker et al (1995) support the OSNZ (1990) treatment, where lawryi of Stewart Island is considered subspecifically distinct, cytochrome b studies in the same paper are equivocal. Status of the Haast population is uncertain; more recent studies by Burbidge et al (2003) suggest that the three populations, Haast, Fiordland, and Stewart Island are distinct at least at the subspecific level. The Burbidge study (2003) indicated that there are two lineages within the Fiordland population, possibly distinct enough to be considered separate subspecies. Herbert and Daugherty (2002) showed that Haast birds are genetically highly distinctive, probably at the species level, whereas Fiordland and Stewart Island birds are genetically similar.
Birds on Kapiti Island have been thought to be of hybrid origin; genetic studies reveal alleles derived from North Island Brown and either Fiordland or Stewart Island Tokoeka (Herbert and Daugherty 2002; Miskelly and Powlesland 2013). However Hugh Robertson, Forest and Bird #346 Nov 2012, noted that the birds are derived from Fiordland and does not mention hybrid origin).
A. a. lawryi Res NZ (Stewart I 25,000 inds, NZ Dept. Cons.; translocated to Ulva I, Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).
A. nov. sp. Haast Brown Kiwi (Haast Tokoeka)
Res NZ (SI: Haast 200-300 inds, NZ Dept. Cons.; translocations in progress to Rarotoka (Centre) I, Foveaux Strait, and Coal I (Te Puka Hereka), s. Fiordland). Fiordland, Orokonui Sanctuary).
NOTE: Burbidge et al (2003) noted differences between this disjunct population and A. australis.The name A. fusca may be available for this taxon; the type of A. fusca was taken at Bruce Bay, somewhat north of the present range of Haast Tokoeka, but possibly within its original range; the genetic makeup of the specimen apparently has not been studied, although it was synonymized with A. owenii by OSNZ (2010).
Apteryx mantelli North Island Brown Kiwi
Res NZ (NI 25,000, NZ Dept. Cons.; Little Barrier I 1000; There have been multiple successful translocations of this species to offshore and mainland "islands" (Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).).
NOTE: Burbidge et al (2003) demonstrated that this taxon is specifically distinct from South Island and Okarito Brown kiwi. Birds on Little Barrier Island are genetically distinctive; further study is needed (Herbert and Daugherty 2002). A neotype was was selected for this species to eliminate doubts as to whether mantelli was ever established and to preserve its use (Shepherd et al 2009).
A. rowi Okarito Brown Kiwi (Rowi)
Res NZ (Okarito 200, NZ Dept. Cons.; translocations in progress to Blumine I and Mana I, Miskelly and Powlesland 2013)).
NOTE: This species, epithet correctly spelled rowi, was formally described by Tennyson et al (2003).
Data in Baker et al (1995) indicate this population is probably specifically distinct, and more closely related to NI populations than to other SI populations. Burbidge et al (2003) and Worthy and Holdaway (2002) consider the Okarito population distinct at the species level.
TINAMIDAE (1 species)This family of South American origin occurs in the Pacific only as an introduced species.
Nothoprocta perdicaria Chilean Tinamou
N. p. perdicaria Int Easter I (Long 1981).
ANATIDAE (74 species)
Taxonomy within this large family is somewhat unsettled, mainly relative to incomplete understanding of placement within sub-families and tribes. Boyd summarizes the most recent studies; Dendrocygninae Whistling-ducks remain basal in Anatidae, but Boyd moves Cereopsis to Anserinae, which has not been followed here, the basal tribe Cereopseinae being retained. Malacorhynchus and Hymenolaimus are herein considered basal to remaining Anatinae; genetic studies by Robertson and Goldstien (2012) suggest no close relationship with any other members of Anatidae. The remaining taxa of Anatidae are divided between tribes Anserinae and Anatinae. Within Anatinae, Boyd assigns the remaining species to 6 subtribes, with Tadornini, Cairini, and Mergini basal to a large clade containing Callonettini, Aythyini, and Anatini, with Callonettini basal to the latter two (Callonettini does not occur in the Pacific Region). As discussed in Christidis and Boles (2008), Anas as traditionally constituted was found to be paraphyletic by Johnson and Sorenson (1999); the following taxa occurring in the Pacific Region are removed from Anas and listed here with appropriate generic names prior to remaining Anas: Sibrionetta Baikal Teal, Querquedula Garganey, and Spatula "blue-winged ducks".
Dendrocygna autumnalis Black-bellied Whistling-Duck
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2012), Galapagos Is (Isabela, Swash and Still 2005).
D. guttata Spotted Whistling-Duck
Acc Solomon Is (Bougainville, first reported 1999, may become resident at lakes near Mabiri, Hadden 2004a).
D. bicolor Fulvous Whistling-Duck
Extirpated (not natural population, Pyle and Pyle 2009) Hawaiian Is (formerly res 1980s-1990s Oahu, Kauai).
D. eytoni Plumed Whistling-Duck
Cas NZ (Mar-Jan NI and SI). Acc Solomon Is (Makira, Rennell, Dutson 2001), New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Dutson 2011).
D. arcuata Wandering Whistling-Duck
D. a. pygmaea Extirpated Fiji (Mayr and Diamond 2001).
D. a. australis? Cas New Caledonia (has bred, but no sightings since 1970s, Doughty).
Cereopsis novaehollandiae Cape Barren Goose
C. n. novaehollandiae Cas, established locally as feral, NZ (NI, SI).
NOTE: Recent studies suggest that this genus may be closely related to Coscoroba (Boyd), although its basal location near Stictonetta is also supported, and is retained here.
Included here is subtribe Anserini, the geese and swans.
Branta bernicla Brant
B. b. nigricans Cas Nov-Apr Hawaiian Is, Guadalupe I.
B. hutchinsii Cackling Goose
NOTE: AOU (2004) divided Canada Goose (old sense) into 2 species: Canada Goose (B. canadensis) and Cackling Goose (B. hutchinsii), the latter including the small forms listed here. Data for the Hawaiian Is below are from Pyle and Pyle (2009). Occurrence of the Central US Flyway taxon hutchinsii is unproven (Pyle and Pyle 2009).
B. h. minima Vis Oct-May Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Kauai, Hawaii, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
B. h. leucopareia Cas Hawaiian Is (NW Hawaiian Is incl Kure Sep), 3 recs Oahu and Hawaii, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
NOTE: Two birds reported for Marshall Is (Kwajalein) were raised in captivity in the Aleutian Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985). Pyle and Pyle (2009) suggest that most NW. Hawaiian Is recs are this taxon.
B. h. taverneri Cas Nov-Mar Hawaiian Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009).
NOTE: Occurrence of this taxon in the Hawaiian Is has been questioned by Jaramillo in light of its distribution in North America and difficulty of identification relative to B. c. parvipes.
B. canadensis Canada Goose
B. c. occidentalis Cas Hawaiian Is (3 possible records Molokai and Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
B. c. parvipes Cas Hawaiian Is (3 posssible records Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
B. c. moffitti Int? Hawaiian Is.
NOTE: Pyle and Pyle ( 2009) suggest flocks on Hawaii and Kauai that might be this taxon are escapes or introduced birds).
B. c. maxima (and/or B. c. canadensis, Angus Wilson).
Int NZ 50,000 inds. Acc Nov Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001). The following records probably of birds derived from NZ: Lord Howe I (Feb-Apr, "evidently vagrants from NZ", McAllan et al 2004), New Caledonia (Oct; from NZ, Doughty 1999, McAllan et al 2004), Kermadec Is (Jun-Aug Raoul, Veitch et al 2004), Chatham Is, Auckland Is.
B. c subsp? Acc Kiribati (Tarawa), Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).
B. sandvicensis Hawaiian Goose (Nene)
Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii 350 inds). Re-int Hawaiian Is (Maui 100 inds, Kauai 600-650 inds, Molokai 250 inds).
Anser anser Feral (Graylag) Goose
Res NZ (SI), Chatham Is (Chatham, Pitt, Aikman and Miskelly 2004).
NOTE: Listed here to account for feral populations in NZ (Heather and Robertson 1996; OSNZ 2010) and Norfolk I (R. Clarke, Ewin).
A. serrirostris Tundra Bean Goose
A. f. serrirostris Cas Ogasawara Is (Mukojima, Chichijima).
A. albifrons Greater White-fronted Goose
A. a. frontalis Cas Nov-Mar Iwo Is, Oct-May Hawaiian Is (incl Kure Sep; no conclusive evidence that subspecies other than frontalis have occurred, although possible in w. Hawaiian Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Guadalupe I, Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).
A. indicus Bar-headed Goose
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).
A. caerulescens Snow Goose
A. c. caerulescens Cas Nov-Apr Hawaiian Is. Acc Marshall Is (Erikub, Amerson 1969).
NOTE: Some authors retain Chen for this taxon (see Boyd).
A. canagica Emperor Goose
Cas Nov-Mar Hawaiian Is.
NOTE: Some authors assign this taxon to Philacte, if it is accepted that Anser and Chen are not monophyletic; their exact relationships however are uncertain (see Boyd).
Cygnus olor Mute Swan
Int NZ 200 inds (NI, SI).
C. atratus Black Swan
Res and Int NZ (Tennyson 2010) 60,000 inds, Chatham Is 3000-30,000 inds (Aikman and Miskelly 2004). Cas Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I.
C. melanocoryphus Black-necked Swan
Cas Juan Fernandez Is (Madge and Burn 1988).
C. columbianus Tundra Swan
C. c. bewickii (incl jankowskyi ) Acc Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima); Hawaiian Is (Dec-Mar Molokai, NAB).
C. c. columbianus Cas Hawaiian Is (Feb-Mar Kauai, Nov-Dec Midway, Oct Maui, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
C. cygnus Whooper Swan
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).
This sub-family as treated here contains 7 tribes, 6 of which are represented: Tadornini (shelducks), Cairinini (perching ducks), Mergini (sea ducks), Aythyini (diving ducks), Anatini (dabbling ducks), and Oxyurini (stiff-tailed ducks). Basal to Anatinae are Malacorhynchus and Hymenolaimus; while generally included in Anatinae (see HANZAB), Livezey (1986) considered this species and the next "unusual members" of the Tadorninae.
Hymenolaimus malacorhynchus Blue Duck
H. m. malacorhynchus Res NZ (SI 3000 inds).
H. m. hymenolaimus Res NZ (NI 1000 inds).
NOTE: The subspecies are poorly-differentiated, and not accepted by OSNZ (2010).
Malacorhyncus membranaceus Pink-eared Duck
Acc NZ (Jun-Jul 1990 NI, OSNZ 2010).
Tadorna tadornoides Australian (Chestnut-breasted) Shelduck
Res NZ (mostly ne SI 20 inds). Acc Nov Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Aug-Dec Norfolk I, Kermadec Is (Mar-Aug Raoul I, Veitch et al 2004), Dec Chatham Is (Pitt I, Miskelly et al 2006), Apr Auckland Is, Dec-Feb Campbell I, Nov-Dec Snares Is.
T. variegata Paradise Shelduck
Res NZ 120,000 inds. Cas Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006). Acc Mar-Aug 1950 Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Kermadec Is (Oct Raoul, Veitch et al 2004).
Aix galericulata Mandarin Duck
Acc Ogasawara Is (Hahajima).
Chenonetta jubata Australian Wood (Maned) Duck
Cas NZ (NI, SI). Acc Sep-Oct Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004; report Mar 1995 withdrawn), Snares Is (one bird 1982-86, Miskelly et al 2001).
Histrionicus histrionicus Harlequin Duck
Cas Hawaiian Is (5 recs Nov-Apr Midway I, 1 rec Apr Laysan I; Oahu report is incorrect, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
Clangula hyemalis Long-tailed Duck
Acc Hawaiian Is (3 recs: Nov Midway I, Dec-Feb Oahu, Jan-Jun Hawaii).
Melanitta americana Black Scoter
Acc Hawaiian Is (2 recs Nov-Dec Midway I).
NOTE: This species has been shown to be distinct from M. nigra based on differing breeding vocalizations (see Boyd).
M. perspicillata Surf Scoter
Acc Hawaiian Is (Nov Kauai, Dec Oahu), Mariana Is (Jan Guam, Wiles et al 2000).
Bucephala albeola Bufflehead
Cas Nov-Apr Hawaiian Is.
B. clangula Common Goldeneye
B. c. subsp.? Cas Hawaiian Is (4 recs: Nov Laysan, Dec Molokai, Jan-Feb Maui, Oct Hawaii; Pyle and Pyle 2009, Scott et al 2001).
B. islandica Barrow's Goldeneye
Acc Hawaiian Is (Jan-Feb Kauai, Pyle 2002).
Lophodytes cucullatus Hooded Merganser
Cas Nov-Apr Hawaiian Is (all recs SE Is).
Mergus serrator Red-breasted Merganser
Cas Oct-Feb Hawaiian Is. Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Guadalupe I, Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).
M. merganser Common Merganser
M. m. americanus Acc Hawaiian Is (one long-staying bird prob accounts for all sightings- Pyle and Pyle 2009).
M. australis New Zealand (Auckland Island) Merganser
Extinct. Res formerly Auckland Is.
Aythya ferina Common Pochard
Cas Mariana Is (Guam, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991). Acc Hawaiian Is (Midway Is).
A. valisineria Canvasback
Cas Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is, Marshall Is. Acc Clipperton I, Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).
A. americana Redhead
Cas Oct-Mar Hawaiian Is.
A. collaris Ring-necked Duck
Vis Sep-May Hawaiian Is (only 1 rec NW. Is). Acc Clipperton I.
A. australis Hardhead (White-eyed Duck)
A. a. australis Irruptive (breeds?) Solomon Is, New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Barre and Bachy 2003). Extirpated NZ. Cas Norfolk I, NZ (Aug-May NI, SI). Acc Mar Lord Howe I (Colbourne), Aug-Sep Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).
A. a. extima Res Vanuatu (Banks Is, Santo, Aore, Malo, Ambae, Efate, Erromamdo, Tanna; Bregulla 1992).
NOTE: This subspecies based on smaller birds of Vanuatu, incl Banks Is (Mayr 1945); measurements appear to be within those of australis, however, and so subspecific status is questionable (HANZAB).
A. fuligula Tufted Duck
Vis Oct-Apr Ogasawara Is, Palau (Babelthuap, Koror, Peleliu, Angaur, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (Yap), Mariana Is. Cas Marshall Is (Kwajalein, Amerson 1969), Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is.
A. novaeseelandiae New Zealand Scaup
Res 20,000 inds NZ (NI, SI).
A. marila Greater Scaup
A. m. nearctica Vis Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is. Cas Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is (Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Yap, Watson).
NOTE: For use of nearctica rather than mariloides, see Dickinson (2003). Pyle and Pyle (2009) suggest that Eurasian marila may occur in the NW Hawaiian Is.
A. affinis Lesser Scaup
Vis Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is. Acc Clipperton I, this sp? Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).
Sibrionetta formosa Baikal Teal
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Hawaiian Is (Dec-Mar Kauai).
Querquedula querquedula Garganey
Cas Ogasawara Is (winter Chichijima). Hypo Wake I (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).
Vis Sep-May Hawaiian Is, Palau, Mariana Is (Apr Tinian, Guam, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991).
NOTE: Livezey (1991) considered this species to be closest to the "green-winged teal", including S. formosa
Spatula discors Blue-winged Teal
NOTE: This species and the next 3 comprise the "Blue-winged ducks".
Vis Oct-Apr (most) Galapagos Is, Sep-May Hawaiian Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009). Cas Cocos I (Montoya 2012). Acc Guadalupe I, Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Clipperton I.
S. cyanoptera Cinnamon Teal
Cas Sep-Apr Hawaiian Is. Acc Guadalupe I, Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Clipperton I.
S. clypeata Northern Shoveler
Vis Oct-Apr Mariana Is, Caroline Is (Yap- Wiles et al 2000, Pohnpei, Kosrae- Hayes et al 2016), Wake I, Marshall Is (Kwajalein, Amerson 1969), Hawaiian Is, Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Makin, Tarawa, Amerson 1969; Line Is, Phoenix Is). Cas Mar-Aug NZ (NI, SI), Tuamotu Is. Acc Ogasawara Is (Mukojima), Cocos I (Montoya 2012), Guadalupe I, Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Clipperton I.
S. rhynchotis Australasian Shoveler
OSNZ (2010) did not recognize susbpecific separation of NZ and Australian birds due to mobility of the two populations.
A. r. variegata Res NZ 100,000-150,000 inds (NI, SI; cas Stewart I), Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006), Auckland Is. Acc May Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).
A. r. subsp? (Listed as A. r. rhyncotis by Barre and Dutson 2000). Acc New Caledonia (from NZ? Doughty 1999).
Anas strepera Gadwall
NOTE: This species and the next 3 were considered distinct from the remaining members of Anas based on plumage and structural characters and assigned to the genus Mareca by Livezey (1991), although Johnson and Sorenson (1999) included these taxa in Anas, within which they were the first group to diverge (Christidis and Boles 2008).
A. s. strepera Vis Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is. Cas Ogasawara Is (Mukojima), Mariana Is (Tinian, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991, Pyle and Engbring 1985). A report from Marshall Is (Kwajalein) considered incorrect (Pyle and Engbring 1985), but listed by Spennemann and Benjamin (2004).
A. s. couesi Extinct. Res formerly Kiribati (Teraina; this island, formerly Washington I, rather than Tabuaeran, formerly Fanning I, as discussed by Weller 1980).
A. falcata Falcated Duck
Acc Mariana Is (Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Hawaiian Is (Oct Midway I, Pyle 2002).
Anas penelope Eurasian Wigeon
Vis Oct-Apr Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk), Wake I, Hawaiian Is. Cas Marshall Is (Jaluit, Amerson 1969), Palmyra I. Acc Clipperton I.
A. americana American Wigeon
Vis Sep-May Hawaiian Is. Cas Mariana Is (Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991; Oct Saipan, R. David). Acc Palmyra I, Johnston I, Clipperton I, Cocos I (Montoya 2012).
A. chlorotis Brown Teal
NOTE: This species and the next 5, the "Australasian Teal", were discussed by Kennedy and Spencer (2000), who suggested that A. gracilis and A. castanea are sister species sharing a common ancestor with the NZ species, the latter occupying the NZ region prior to divergence of castanea and gracilis. Analysis of genetic variation supports specific status of this and the next 2 species (Daugherty et al 1999; Kennedy and Spencer 2000).
Res NZ (Great Barrier I 700 inds, NI 300 inds including a few on Little Barrier I and Great Mercury I, SI <50 inds, extirpated Stewart I. Small reint populations Kapiti I, Manawatu-Horowhenua area, Mimiwhangata, Russell, Tiritiri Matangi I, Mana I, Karori Sanctuary, Port Charles, Mayor I (Tuhua), Tawaharanui. About 200 in captivity). Acc New Caledonia (2 records; likely escapes? Barre and Dutson 2000).
A. aucklandica Auckland Island Teal
Res Auckland Is 2000 inds.
A. nesiotis Campbell Island Teal
Res Campbell Is (Dent I) 30 inds; captive breeding started Mt Bruce 1984 and ended 2007; captive-bred birds reintroduced rat-cleared Campbell Island 2004+ (150+ inds; breeding by 2006). Int NZ (SI: Codfish I 1999-2000, where currently breeding).
A. nov. sp. Macquarie Island Teal
Extinct. Res formerly Macquarie I (Holdaway et al 2001).
A. gracilis Grey Teal
NOTE: Formerly considered part of A. gibberifrons, but see Christidis and Boles (1994). Mayr (1945) considered New Caledonian birds separable as mathewsi, but recent authors include these birds in gracilis.
A. g. remissa Extinct. Res formerly Solomon Is (Rennell).
A. g. gracilis Res NZ 50,000 inds, New Caledonia (Barre and Dutson 2000), Vanuatu (Dutson 2011). Cas Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006), Lord Howe I (May and Aug McAllan et al 2004; Mar-May, Mustoe). Acc Nov Snares Is, Oct (R. Clarke) and Apr Macquarie I.
A. g. subsp? Res Solomon Is (Rennell: small population w end L Tenggano, Doughty 1999).
A. castanea Chestnut Teal
Cas Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), NZ (NI, SI).
A. acuta Northern Pintail
Vis mostly Aug-May Hawaiian Is, Wake I, Marshall Is (Taongi, Kwajalein, Jaluit, Amerson 1969), Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is (Truk, Yap- Wiles et al 2000, Kosrae- Hayes et al 2016). Cas Iwo Is, Kiribati (Line Is), Tonga, Cook Is (Penrhyn Nov, banded California, Holyoak 1980), Society Is, Marquesas Is. Acc Solomon Is (Mar-Apr Bougainville, Hadden 2004a), NZ (SI Oct 1997, OSNZ 2010), Guadalupe I, Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Clipperton I.
NOTE: Baker (1951) indicated that winter visitors to Micronesia were from Asia, and belonged to the subspecies A. a. acuta, whereas the North American subspecies A. a. tzitzihoa, along with other American species, had been noted in the Marshall Is Oct 1899 and May 1900; the latter subsp occurs regularly in the Hawaiian Is in winter. One banded on Molokai in 2009 was shot 29 Dec 2010 in Merced Co, CA (Dibben-Young). These subspecies are not currently recognized, however. Palmer (1976) cites several banding recs indicating movement between North America and east Asia.
A. bahamensis White-cheeked Pintail
A. b. galapagensis Res Galapagos Is 2000 prs (Penhallurick 2003).
A. crecca Common Teal
NOTE: This species and the next are considered conspecific by AOU (1998), but the evidence for either position is equivocal.
Vis Oct-Mar Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Clements 2003), Marshall Is, Kiribati (Line Is). Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Hawaiian Is (most in NW Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
A. carolinensis Green-winged Teal
Vis Sep-Apr Hawaiian Is. Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2012), Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Marshall Is (Jaluit; Baker 1951; this taxon? Kwajalein, Amerson 1969).
A. superciliosa Pacific Black Duck
Subspecies are poorly-differentiated, at least for NZ and Australian birds, due to substantial genetic mixing, although NZ birds possess a distinct haplotype indicating genetic separation in the past (OSNZ 2010).
A. s. pelewensis Res Palau (Babeldaob, where most recent report Lake Ngardok, ?Peleliu, ?Angaur, extirp Koror; now possibly extirpated throughout (Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (Truk, hypo Yap, Pyle and Engbring 1985), Solomon Is (throughout, but extirp Rennell, Dutson 2011), Vanuatu, New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Is), Fiji, Samoa (Savaii, Upolu, Tutuila 35 inds; uncommon, Tarburton 2001), Tonga (incl Niuafoou, Rinke 1986), Wallis and Futuna (Thibault et al 2015), Cook Is (Atiu, Mitiaro, Mauke, Mangaia, extirp Rarotonga, extirp Aitutaki, Holyoak 1980), Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea, Maiao, Penhallurick 2003), Tubuai Is (Rapa, Tubuai, Raivavae, Penhallurick 2003). Vis Niue.
A. s. superciliosa Res NZ 500,000 inds (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is (Chatham, Pitt, ?Rangatira, threatened through hybridization with Mallard, Aikman and Miskelly 2004), Snares Is (replaced by hybrids and Mallards by 2000; Miskelly et al 2001), Auckland Is, Antipodes Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I (<100 prs).
A. s. subsp? Res Kermadec Is (<50 prs, Veitch et al 2004), Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991; no pure birds remaining due to hybridization with Mallard, Tracey et al 2008). Cas Norfolk I.
NOTE Hybridizes extensively NZ, Norfolk I (Langfield, Ewin), and Lord Howe I with Mallard A. platyrhynchos, although some evidence from NZ suggests decreased survivability and reproductive success of hybrids. A. oustaleti Marianas Duck, formerly occurring Mariana Is (Guam, Saipan, Tinian), now extinct, was probably a stabilized hybrid swarm of superciliosa and platyrhynchos, as it was highly variable phenotypically (Yamashina 1948).
A. laysanensis Laysan Duck
Res Hawaiian Is (Laysan I 500 inds; int 2004 and 2005 Midway Is (Sand I 45 inds; pop 200+ fall 2007)).
A. platyrhynchos Mallard
NOTE: See Boyd for a discussion of the "Mallard complex".
Res (most are feral) Hawaiian Is (probably wild birds winter each year as well, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Int New Caledonia (Grande Terre) early 1970s (Doughty et al 1999), localized populations (Dutson 2011); Barre and Dutson (2000) note its presence and hybridization with A. superciliosa; one banded in NZ (Opuatia autumn 2004) recovered in Noumea 2 months later (Lawrie); NZ 3,000,000 inds; self-int prob from NZ to the following: Norfolk I, Lord Howe I (since 1963, McAllan et al 2004), Chatham Is (since 1950 Chatham, Pitt, Rangatira, Aikman and Miskelly 2004), Antipodes Is, Snares Is 10 prs, Auckland Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I (<100 prs). Vis Nov-Mar Iwo Is, Ogasawara Is. Cas, most poss feral, Mariana Is (Sarigan, nominate migratory form, Pyle and Engbring 1985; Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Yap), Marshall Is (Kwajalein, Amerson 1969), Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Tarawa, Amerson 1969), Cook Is (Penrhyn, Pukapuka, Suwarrow, Holyoak 1980), Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004). Prob some north-south movement at Norfolk I based on banding recoveries (Hermes et al 1986); birds banded at Norfolk I and NZ recovered New Caledonia (Barre and Dutson 2000; Lawrie), Vanuatu (Tanna, McAllan et al 2004). Acc Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Fiji (Penhallurick 2003), Guadalupe I, Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).
A. zonorhyncha Eastern (Chinese) Spot-billed Duck
NOTE: Livezey (1991) considers zonorhyncha specifically distinct from A. poecilorhyncha Indian Spot-billed Duck. See also Boyd.
Acc Ogasawara Is (Mukojima), Mariana Is (Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991).
A. wyvilliana Koloa (Hawaiian Duck)
Res Hawaiian Is 2500 inds (Kauai 2000 inds, Niihau 20 inds, Hawaii 200 inds- Kohala Mts/Hilo area, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Reint Oahu 300 inds, Maui 5-7 inds, Penhallurick 2003; reint birds mostly interbreeding with Mallard, Pratt 2002).
Oxyura jamaicensis Ruddy Duck
O. j. jamaicensis Cas Dec-Jan Hawaiian Is (no recs NW Is.). Acc Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).
NOTE: The continental N. American subspecies rubida is now generally synonymized with West Indian jamaicensis; however more study is needed (see Palmer 1976).
O. dominica Masked Duck
Acc Galapagos Is (pr and duckling San Cristobal Dec 1994, Swash and Still 2005).