ANHINGIDAE (1 species)

Anhinga novaehollandiae Australasian Darter
NOTE: Christidis and Boles (2008) provided evidence for specific status of the Australasian Darter.
Cas NZ (5 recs Nov-Jan, OSNZ 2010). Hypothetical Palau (sp? Ripley; see Pratt et al 1987).

PELECANIDAE (2 species)

Pelecanus conspicillatus Australian Pelican
Cas Solomon Is (one breeding rec, Santa Anna 1952, Cain and Galbraith 1952; Nissan, Nuguria, Hadden 2004b), Vanuatu, New Caledonia, NZ (Aug-Dec, 4 records, OSNZ 2010; at least 14 arrived in n NZ Aug 2012; 18 were found together Apr 2013, and last report of at least one bird was Mar 2015, NZBO). Acc Aug 2002 Nauru (Buden 2008), Norfolk I, Aug-Dec 1978 Fiji, Palau (flock 50-100 arrived Jul 1978 and dwindling numbers seen throughout until 1985, Pratt and Etpison 2008).

P. occidentalis Brown Pelican
P. o. urinator Res Galapagos Is.
P. o. californicus Cas Cocos I (Montoya 2008b). Acc Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Socorro, San Benedicto, Brattstrom and Howell 1956).


Eudocimus albus White Ibis
Acc Clipperton I.

Plegadis falcinellus Glossy Ibis
Cas Solomon Is (Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Buka: 2 in Aug, poss 1st rec, Gregory; Kolombangara), Feb-Apr and Nov New Caledonia (Barre and Bachy 2003), NZ (annual mostly Mar-Nov NI, SI). Acc Jun 2009 Palau (Pratt et al 2010), Aug Fiji, May Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Chatham Is (Chatham), Cocos I (Montoya 2008b), Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).

P. chihi White-faced Ibis
Cas Hawaiian Is (SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Revillagigedo Is (Clarion, Howell and Webb 1995, Wanless et al 2009), Clipperton I.

Threskiornis molucca Australian White Ibis

NOTE: Subspecies can be separated by size and plumage characters (HANZAB); pygmaeus is quite distinct (Mayr and Diamond 2001). Some authors include strictipennis in molucca. Use of molucca discussed by Schodde and Bock 2016).
T. m. molucca Acc Norfolk I (Penhallurick 2003; these records cited under strictipennis by OSNZ 2010).
T. m. strictipennis Cas mostly May-Jan NZ. Acc Sep Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).
T. m. pygmaeus Res Solomon Is (Rennell, Bellona).

T. spinicollis Straw-necked Ibis
Acc Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004; Jan 2010, Rohan Clarke), Norfolk I (2 records, OSNZ 2010), NZ (South I Feb-Apr 2009).

T. melanocephalus Black-headed Ibis
Acc Nov Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).

Platalea regia Royal Spoonbill
Res NZ (NI, SI; Mar Chatham Is, Miskelly et al 2006). Vis Solomon Is (breeds? Rennell). Cas Solomon Is (Makira, Bellona), New Caledonia (Barre and Dutson 2000), Lord Howe I (4 recs Mar-Sep, McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I (4 records, OSNZ 2010). Acc Kermadec Is (Apr Raoul, Veitch et al 2004).

P. flavipes Yellow-billed Spoonbill
Cas NZ (NI 2 records, OSNZ 2010). Acc Mar-Apr Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I.

P. leucorodia White Spoonbill
P. l. leucorodia Acc Ogasawara Is (Mukojima).

ARDEIDAE (34 species)

Botaurus poiciloptilus Australasian Bittern
Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Is: Ouvea, in Barre and Dutson 2000), NZ 580-725 prs (NI, SI, Stewart I), ?Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006). Acc Nov-Dec Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).

B. lentiginosus American Bittern
Acc Clipperton I, Hawaiian Is (Oahu Jan 2013).

Ixobrychus exilis Least Bittern
NOTE: Recent evidence cited by Boyd suggests that this species is closer to Botaurus than Ixobrychus.
I. e. exilis? Acc Clipperton I.

I. sinensis Yellow Bittern
Res Ogasawara Is, s Izu Is, Iwo Is, Palau, Mariana Is (Guam, Rota, Tinian, Saipan, vis Agiguan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pyle and Engbring 1985), Solomon Is (Bougainville, Hadden 2004a). Cas winter vis elsewhere Solomon Is.

I. dubius Black-backed Bittern

NOTE: This taxon has been separated at the species level from Little Bittern ( I. minutus (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Christidis & Boles 2008).
I. m. dubius Res New Caledonia (first seen Jan 2001, present and has bred since, Barre and Bachy 2003, although Dutson 2011 states bred only in 2001). Cas Lord Howe I (3 recs, McAllan et al 2004). Acc Feb NZ (SI, O'Donnell and Dilks 1988).

I. novaezelandiae New Zealand Little Bittern
Extinct. Res formerly NZ (NI OSNZ 2010, SI, ?Chatham Is, Miskelly et al 2006).

I. eurhythmus Von Schrenck's Bittern
Res (summer only) Ogasawara Is. Acc Nov-Dec 1931 Palau.

I. cinnamomeus Cinnamon Bittern
Acc Iwo Is, Caroline Is (Yap Jul, Wiles et al 2000).

I. flavicollis Black Bittern

NOTE: Sometimes considered generically distinct as Dupetor.
I. f. flavicollis Acc Mariana Is (Jun Guam).
I. f. woodfordi This taxon is quite distinct from other subspecies (Mayr and Diamond 2001). Res Solomon Is except Makira (Hadden 2004a, Dutson 2011).

Nyctanassa violacea Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
N. v. pauper Res Galapagos Is.
N. v. bancrofti (incl gravirostris) Res Revillagigedo Is (Socorro I).
N. v. subsp? Cas Jan-Apr Cocos I (Dean and Montoya 2005). Acc Clipperton I.

Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned Night-Heron
N. n. nycticorax Vis Nov-Apr Palau, Mariana Is (Guam, Tinian, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991). Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei, Pyle and Engbring 1985, Clements 2003).
N. n. hoactli Res Hawaiian Is (SE Is; 3 recs uncertain subsp May-Aug NW Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Clipperton I, Galapagos Is (Santa Cruz 1971, Swash and Still 2005).

N. caledonicus Nankeen Night-Heron
N. c. crassirostris Extinct. Formerly res Ogasawara Is.
N. c. pelewensis Res Palau. Cas Caroline Is (Truk; Feb Yap, Wiles et al 2000; hypo Pohnpei, Pyle and Engbring 1985, Pratt et al 1987). Acc Mariana Is (Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991).
N. c. mandibularis Res Solomon Is (incl Nissan, Nuguria, Hadden 2004b; absent Temotu, Dutson 2011).
N. c. caledonicus Res New Caledonia.
N. c. australasiae (has precedence over hilli, OSNZ 2010) Res NZ (NI, 20 inds?). Vis (this subsp?) L Howe I (2 recs Dec-Mar, McAllan et al 2004).
N. c. subsp? Poss res Fiji but extirpated after human arrival (Watling 2001). An old report from Samoa (Manua) of the night-heron "being found only on the island of Manua" suggests at least transient occurrence there (Armstrong 1932; pers. comm. Olivier Bazard).

Gorsachius goisagi Japanese Night-Heron
Acc Ogasawara Is, Palau (Koror).

G. melanolophus Malayan Night-Heron
Acc Palau.

Egretta picata Pied Heron
Acc New Caledonia (Surprise, Dutson 2011).

E. novaehollandiae White-faced Heron
E. m. novaehollandiae Res Tonga (Tongatapu), Fiji (w Viti Levu, Mamanuca Is, Yasua Is, Penhallurick 2003; self-int 1997 Dutson and Watling 2007), Norfolk I 30 inds 2005 (Ewin), Lord Howe I, NZ (NI, SI), Chatham Is. Cas Solomon Is (May Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Guadalcanal; Santa Cruz Is: Nendo, Dutson 2001), Vanuatu (Tanna, Aneiteu, Efate, Bregulla 1992, Dutson 2001), Sep 2014 "first record" (Thibault et al 2015), Jul Samoa (Manua), Mar Niue, Kermadec Is Mar-Nov, Veitch et al 2004), Campbell I, Snares Is, Auckland Is, Macquarie I.
E. m. nana Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Is).

E. caerulea Little Blue Heron
Cas Cocos I (Montoya 2008b). Acc Hawaiian Is (recs over 20 years at same locality Oahu likely a single bird, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Galapagos Is (1 rec 1998, Swash and Still 2005).

E. thula Snowy Egret
E. t. subsp? Cas Aug-Apr Galapagos Is; Hawaiian Is (4 recs SE Is, as well as at least 5 recs not conclusively eliminating Little, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Revillagigedo Is (4 reported on Clarion Mar 1953 seen several times, Brattstrom and Howell 1956, and one seen there Nov 1971 by Brattstrom; suggested these might have been Cattle Egrets, Jehl and Parkes 1982, although Howell and Webb 1995 show this species for Clarion, as do Wanless et al 2009; AOU 1998 lists a sight record for Socorro); Feb-Apr Cocos I (2 recs, Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008b). Acc Samoa (Rose I; considered hypo by Watling 2001), Clipperton I.

E. tricolor Tricolored Heron
NOTE: Subspecies occidentalis has been merged with ruficollis (Frederick 2013).
E. t. ruficollis? Cas Cocos I (Montoya 2008b), Revillagigedo Is, Galapagos Is (Swash and Still 2005).

E. garzetta Little Egret

NOTE: OSNZ (2010) accepted the morphology-based split of immaculata from nigripes proposed by Amadon and Woolfenden (1952).
E. g. garzetta Vis Apr-Sep Palau. Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Caroline Is (Aug and Feb-Mar Yap, Wiles et al 2000; Pohnpei, Klauber), Mariana Is (Oct Saipan, R. David; Tinian, Agiguan, Penhallurick 2003; Rota Oct-Jan, Wiles et al 2000, Apr, Klauber; Guam, Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991).
E. g. nigripes Cas mostly Apr-Sep Solomon Is (Mayr and Diamond 2001, Hadden 2004a; Buka, Bougainville, Vonavona, Dutson 2011).
E. g. immaculata Cas NZ (virtually annual, incl birds banded in Australia, OSNZ 2010), Kermadec Is (Oct-Nov Raoul, Veitch et al 2004), Norfolk I. E. g. subsp? Cas Lord Howe I (2 recs: Apr and Oct-Nov, McAllan et al 2004). Acc Macquarie I (Tasmania PWS).

E. sacra Pacific Reef-Heron
E. s. sacra (includes micronesiae) Res Mariana Is (Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei, Kosrae- Hayes et al 2016), Palau, Wake I, Marshall Is, Nauru (Buden 2008), Kiribati (Gilbert Is, Phoenix Is, Line Is), Lord Howe I (Middleton Reef only- one nest 1973, McAllan et al 2004), NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Tuvalu, Tokelau Is, Wallis and Futuna (Thibault et al 2015), Fiji, Samoa, Tonga (incl Niuafoou, Rinke 1986), Cook Is (north to Suwarrow and Nassau, cas other northern islands, Holyoak 1980), Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Austral Is, Pitcairn Is (Oeno I; Henderson I, Bourne and David 1983). Vis Niue. Cas Chatham Is, Auckland Is. Acc Oct Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004). Hypo Kermadec Is (no definite records, Veitch et al 2004).
E. s. albolineata This subspecies often restricted in distribution to New Caledonia and Loyalty Is, with birds of Solomon Is and Vanuatu designated E. s. sacra (HBW, IOC v7.2). Res Solomon Is (incl Green Is and Nuguria, Tarburton 2006, Tulun, Takuu, Nukumanu, Hadden 2004b), Vanuatu (this subsp, Penhallurick 2003), New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Is).

Mesophoyx intermedia Intermediate Egret

NOTE: Recent genetic studies (Sheldon et al. 2010, Zhou et al. 2014) suggest closer to Ardea than Egretta, but placement is equivocal. For now, it is retained in Mesophoyx to indicate its uncertain taxonomic status. Furthermore, based on morphological differences, Australian birds are split from Asian M. intermedia Intermediate Egret as M. plumifera Plumed Egret (HBW). Asian and African brachyrhyncha birds are more closely related.
Vis Oct-Mar Palau (where also a few in summer), Caroline Is (Yap, Truk incl Satawan Jul 2003, Buden 2006), Mariana Is (Guam, Rota, Tinian, Saipan, Guguan, Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991). Cas Ogasawara and Iwo Is. Acc (this subsp?) Jun-Jul Hawaiian Is (Pyle 2002).

M. plumifera Plumed Egret
Cas Solomon Is (Aug Buka; Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Jun Makira, Hornbuckle), Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I, NZ (about 10 records May-Oct, OSNZ 2010).

Casmerodius modestus Eastern Great Egret

NOTE: The "Great Egrets" (taxon alba) appear to be intermediate between Egretta and Ardea (Howell and Webb 1995, Boyd). For similar reasons that Mesophoyx is used here, Boyd is followed by placing the "Great Egrets" in Casmerodius. Recent studies suggest that as many as 4 species may be involved in C. alba, including South Asian and Australian modesta and New World egretta; Boyd makes a case for a 4-way split, although various other two- and three-way splits have been proposed (Pratt 2011, Kushlan and Hancock 2005, Christidis and Boles 2008).
Res NZ 100-120 inds, 15-25 prs (SI, vis NI), Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Rennell, Guadalcanal, Mayr and Diamond 2001, Penhallurick 2003, but "not known to nest" Bougainville and Buka, Hadden 2004a; vis Santa Isabel, New Georgia Is, Bellona). Vis Oct-Apr Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008). Cas summer Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is (this subsp? several recs 1992-98, Wiles et al 2000; Oct Saipan- R. David), Caroline Is (this subsp? Feb Yap, Wiles et al 2000), New Caledonia (Apr-Oct, Barre and Bachy 2003), Fiji (Viti Levu, Kadavu), Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I, Chatham Is, Auckland Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I. Acc Apr Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).
A. modesta subsp? Cas Sep-Mar Ogasawara Is.

C. egretta American Egret
Res Galapagos Is. Cas Hawaiian Is (4 recs Dec-Mar, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Revillagigedo Is, Apr-May Cocos I (2 records, Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008b). Acc Clipperton I.

Ardea cinerea Grey Heron
A. c. jouyi Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Mariana Is (Saipan, Pratt et al 1987, Rota, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau (2 sightings prior to 1990, only recently confirmed by photo, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (Nov, Feb Yap- Clements 2003). Acc Fiji (Viti Levu, Pratt et al 2008), NZ (NI 1898 specimen, not considered ship-assisted by OSNZ 2010).

A. herodias Great Blue Heron
A. h. cognata Res Galapagos Is (except Wenman, Culpepper, Pinta, Marchena, Genovesa).
A. h. subsp.? Cas Hawaiian Is (12-14 recs SE Is 1 rec NW Is Sep, Pyle and Pyle 2009, Oct-Apr Guadalupe I (cited by AOU 1957 as hyperonca), Revillagigedo Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Feb-Apr Cocos I (Montoya 2008b). Acc Clipperton I.

A. purpurea Purple Heron
A. p. manilensis Acc Iwo Is.

A. pacifica Pacific Heron
Cas NZ (7 records, OSNZ 2010). Acc Norfolk I (1978), Kermadec Is (Nov Macauley, Veitch et al 2004).

Bubulcus ibis Western Cattle Egret

NOTE: Genus Bubulcus is sometimes included in Ardea or Egretta; Christidis and Boles (2008) and OSNZ (2010) assigned it to Ardea. The two previous subspecies of Bubulcus have been separated as full species based on allopatric ranges, vocalizations, plumage and structural differences, and genetic differences (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005; Boyd).
Res Galapagos Is (first 1964, breeding 1986, Swash and Still 2005). Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is; inds from SE Is cas to NW Is where has bred Midway but later eradicated; prob vagrant from N. America, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Vis Cocos I (Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008b). Cas Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Clipperton I (up to 100, 8 recs, Howell et al 1993). Acc Marshall Is I (this subsp?), Wake I, (this subsp?), Johnston Atoll (this subsp?), Tuamotu Is (Nov Mataiva, this subsp?, Pym).

Bubulcus coromandus Eastern Cattle Egret

Vis Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is (Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei; Kosrae- Hayes et al 2016), Apr-Jun and Nov-Dec Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Mar-Nov Norfolk I, Kermadec Is (May-Jun Raoul, Veitch et al 2004), Apr-Nov NZ, Chatham Is. Cas Hawaiian Is (NW Is 2 confirmed recs Nov and Jun-Jul, Pyle and Pyle 2009), New Caledonia (Apr-Oct, Barre and Bachy 2003, incl Lifou, Mare, Dutson 2011), Snares Is. Acc Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Dutson 2011), Fiji (Oct 2003 Viti Levu, Dutson and Watling 2007), Macquarie I.

Ardeola bacchus Chinese Pond Heron
Acc Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is (Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991; Wiles et al 2000).

Butorides virescens Green Heron
NOTE: Sometimes considered conspecific with B. striata, but paucity or absence of mixed pairs and evidence for assortative mating in zones of contact suggests otherwise (AOU 1998; Hayes 2001). David and Gosselin (2002b) indicated that Butorides is feminine.
B. v. anthonyi? Cas Hawaiian Is (8-9 recs SE Is Sep-Mar, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
B. v. subsp? Cas Revillagigedo Is, Cocos I (Montoya 2008b). Acc Clipperton I, Galapagos Is (Floreana 1996, Swash and Still 2005).

B. striata Striated Heron
B. s. amurensis Vis Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Palau, Mariana Is (Saipan, hypo Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Yap Feb, Wiles et al 2000, Chuuk, Wiles et al 2000).
B. s. macrorhyncha Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, very rare, Barre and Dutson 2000, Loyalty Is: Ouvea, more common than on Grande Terre, Barre and Dutson 2000).
B. s. solomonensis Res Solomon Is except Rennell, but incl Bougainville and Buka (Hadden 2004a), Santa Cruz Is (Vanikoro Nov, Dutson 2001), Vanuatu (southern islands, Dutson 2011).
B. s. diminuta Res Santa Cruz Is, Vanuatu, Fiji (Mayr and Diamond 2001). Cas Tonga (Tongatapu Grp). Acc (this subsp.?) Kermadec Is (spec labelled "Nycticorax caledonicus" prob this sp., Veitch et al 2004, although OSNZ 2010 questioned provenance).
B. s. patruela Res Society Is (Tahiti, duPont 1976).
B. s. sundevalli Sometimes considered specifically distinct from B. striata Striated Heron (eg IOC v7.2, Boyd), but both, as well as putative intermediates occur Galapagos Is (Hayes 2001, AOU 2003, Res Galapagos Is.
B. s. subsp.? Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2008b).

BURHINIDAE (1 species)

NOTE: Based on genetic evidence, Boyd considered Charadriiformes to be monophyletic. Boyd's 5 suborders, with Pacific Region families in parentheses, are: Chionidi (Burhinidae), Charadrii (Pluvialidae, Recurvirostridae, Haematopodidae, Charadriidae), Limicoli (Rostratulidae, Scolopacidae), Turnici (Turnicidae), Lari (Glareolidae, Stercoraridae, Alcidae, Laridae). This sequence is followed here.

Esacus magnirostris (=neglectus, giganteus) Beach Thick-Knee
NOTE: Christidis and Boles (2008) discussed the correct name of this species.
Res Solomon Is except Rennell (Dutson 2011), New Caledonia (Grande Terre n. lagoon, Dutson 2011), Vanuatu (Santo, Dutson 2011).

PLUVIALIDAE (3 species)

Recent genetic data indicate that this group is more closely-related to stilts, avocets, and oyster-catchers than to the Charadriidae (Boyd).

Pluvialis fulva Pacific Golden-Plover

NOTE: Measurements suggest birds reaching Australia and S. Pacific may be from both Siberia and Alaska; Siberian birds are smaller (HANZAB).
Vis Aug-Apr throughout c and w Pacific; vis winter with a few summer Ogasawara Is and Palau, Feb-May and Jul-Oct Mariana Is, Hawaiian Is (15,000-74,000 annually, Pyle and Pyle 2009), most Dec and Mar-Apr Nauru (Buden 2008), Sep-Nov Solomon Is (Bougainville), most Sep-May Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), most Aug-May Norfolk I, NZ (650 annually, OSNZ 2010), most Oct-Nov and Mar-Jul Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004), Sep-May Cook Is. Cas e and s to Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Auckland Is. Acc Galapagos Is (1 rec, Swash and Still 2005), Feb Macquarie I (Schultz fide M. Carter).

P. dominicus American Golden-Plover
Cas Cocos I (Montoya 2003), NZ (Jan-Feb NI, Nov SI), Galapagos Is ( 1 rec Santa Cruz, Swash and still 2005).

P. squatarola Grey (Black-bellied) Plover
NOTE: Poole et al (2016) note that subspecies cannot be determined mensurally because of substantial overlap; they did not recognize the three subspecies that have been proposed (Engelmoer and Roselaar 1998).
Vis Aug-May Hawaiian Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009), Mariana Is (Guam, Rota,Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is (Yap- Clements 2003, Truk, Pohnpei Pratt et al 2010, Kosrae Hayes et al 2016), Marshall Is (Eniwetok, Kwajalein, Amerson 1969), NZ (max 10 per year, NI, SI), Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Galapagos Is. Cas s to Ogasawara Is (winter Chichijima), Sep-Mar Solomon Is (Dutson 2001, Hadden 2004a; incl Green Is and Nuguria, Tarburton 2006), New Caledonia, Fiji (Oct Viti Levu: Suva), Cook Is (Manuae Aug, Holyoak 1980), Nov and Jan Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Nov-Dec Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004), Chatham Is, Feb Macquarie I. Acc Nauru (May 1961, Buden 2008), Vanuatu (Dutson, 2011), Cocos I (Montoya 2008b).


Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stilt
NOTE: Many authors (Hayman et al 1986; HANZAB; Christidis and Boles 2008, OSNZ 2010) consider himantopus, mexicanus, knudseni, and leucocephalus subspecies of himantopus.
H. h. himantopus Vis Mariana Is (D. Pratt, Wiles et al 2000), Caroline Is (Yap, Clements 2003), Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008). Cas Ogasawara Is, Hawaiian Is (2 May recs: Kure and Midway, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Iwo Is (Iwojima), ?Marshall Is (Spennemann and Benjamin 2004).

H. mexicanus Black-necked Stilt
NOTE: H. m. knudseni, sometimes considered a full species, is generally treated as a subspecies of H. mexicanus (Pyle and Pyle 2009, IOC v7.2, Boyd).
H. m. mexicanus Res Galapagos Is. Acc Revillagigedo Is.
H. m. knudseni Res 1200-2200 inds Hawaiian Is (SE Is, 1 rec NW Is Nihoa May 1987, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

H. leucocephalus White-headed (Pied) Stilt

NOTE: Considered by some authors conspecific with H. himantopus. Most NZ birds show plumage and structural effects of introgression with H. novaezealandiae Black Stilt (HANZAB).
Res total pop 30,000 inds NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is (Chatham: breeding since 1961, Aikman and Miskelly 2004). Cas Nov-Sep Norfolk I (Moore 1999), incl poss hybrid with Black Stilt Sep 2006 (Christian). Acc Solomon Is (Vanikoro, Dutson, 2011), Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Bounty Is, Apr-May Macquarie I.

H. novaezelandiae Black Stilt
Res NZ (NZBO; SI 119 inds, 47 of which in captivity, Heather and Robertson 1996; only 8 prs breeding in the wild Jan 2002, P. Seddon; res formerly NI; vis Jan-Aug NI.

Recurvirostra americana American Avocet
Acc Hawaii (Sep-Apr Maui, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

R. novaehollandiae Red-necked Avocet
Cas NZ (SI; only 2 records since 1859-92 influx, OSNZ 2010). Acc Norfolk I (early 1854, Moore 1999).


Haematopus ostralegus Eurasian Oystercatcher
H. o. osculans Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. Acc Mariana Is (Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991).

H. finschi South Island Pied Oystercatcher

NOTE: Treatment of finschi as an allospecies of H. ostralegus and of longirostris and unicolor as allospecies of each other (Sibley and Monroe 1990) appears logical, based on appearance and behavior. Data in Baker (1977; see Christidis and Boles 1994) suggest that longirostris and unicolor are more closely related to palliatus than to the ostralegus group.
In recent years this species has begun breeding in east coast South Island sand dunes with unicolor, resulting in hybrids and backcrosses, which resemble finschi but with smudgier features (Crocker et al 2010).
Records from Lord Howe I and Norfolk I previously attributed to H. longirostris Australian Pied Oystercatcher now are more likely this species based on accumulating evidence (McAllan et al 2004).

Res total pop 112,000 inds NZ (NI, SI, NZBO). Cas Feb-Sep Lord Howe I (5 recs, McAllan et al 2004). Acc Sep Vanuatu, Sep-Oct New Caledonia (photo Barre and Bachy 2003), Jul-Sep Norfolk I, Kermadec Is (Feb-May, prob "finschii", Veitch et al 2004), Chatham Is, Dec-Feb Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001), Campbell I (Heather and Robertson 1996, but not listed OSNZ).

H. palliatus American Oystercatcher

NOTE: This taxon, considered by Sibley and Monroe (1990) to include the birds of the Galapagos Is, is treated as an allospecies of H. ostralegus by Sibley and Monroe (1990).
H. p. galapagensis Res Galapagos Is 100 prs.

H. fuliginosus Sooty Oystercatcher

NOTE: The record cited below is considered more likely this species, which has demonstrated ability to wander, rather than sedentary H. unicolor Variable Oystercatcher (McAllan et al 2004).
Acc Mar Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).

H. unicolor Variable Oystercatcher
Res NZ (total c. 4500 inds, 2/3 in NI (NZBO; NI 2700 inds, SI 1150 inds, Stewart I 150 inds).

H. chathamensis Chatham Oystercatcher

NOTE: Treatment as an allospecies of H. unicolor where black form has been lost seems logical, although considered full species by OSNZ (2010) and other authors, based on recent genetic data (Banks and Paterson 2007).
Res Chatham Is 300+ inds mid-2000s (Chatham, Pitt, Rangatira, Mangere, ?Star Keys, NZBO, Aikman and Miskelly 2004, Moore 2008).

CHARADRIIDAE (20 species)

NOTE: Based on genetic data, Boyd found three clades within Charadriidae, listed as subfamilies Charadriinae, Vanellinae, and Anarhyncinae; several species were moved from Charadriinae to Anarhyncinae, notably the three New Zealand species which Boyd thought probably deserved generic status. Herein, Boyd's sequence of species is followed. In this context, Phillips (1980) studied courtship and related behaviors in endemic NZ plovers and concluded that Anarhynchus be merged with Charadrius. Phillips (1980) also proposed that C. bicinctus Double-banded Plover, C. (=Anarhynchus) frontalis Wrybill, and C. obscurus Red-breasted Dotterel are closest relatives of each other and are derived from the C. alexandrinus Kentish Plover group of northern hemisphere mountain- or plains-breeding plovers. Phillips (1980) postulated that ancestral wintering birds bred in NZ during the austral summer and founded the now-endemic NZ species studied.

Eudromias morinellus Eurasian Dotterel
NOTE: Boyd retains Eudromias, while IOC v7.2 places this species in Charadrius.
Acc Hawaiian Is (Kure I Sep 1964, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Charadrius vociferus Killdeer
C. v. vociferus Cas Sep-May Hawaiian Is, Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I. Acc Galapagos Is (Isabela Feb 1971, Swash and Still 2005)).

C. hiaticula Common Ringed Plover
C. h. tundrae Cas Iwo Is, Mariana Is (Guam, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Hawaiian Is (5 confirmed this sp of c. 170 for Common and Semipalmated, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Kiribati (Jun, Child 1982). Acc Tuvalu, Fiji, NZ (NI); recs from these locations may be either C. hiaticula or C. semipalmatus). Hypo Marshall Is (sight rec Jaluit likely this species; Pyle and Engbring 1985).

C. semipalmatus Semipalmated Plover
Vis Aug-May Revillagigedo Is; Clipperton I; Galapagos Is Aug-Oct and Apr-May, few Nov-Mar: Hawaiian Is (most of the c. 170 reports of Common and Semipalmated Plovers prob this sp., Pyle and Pyle 2009). Cas Cocos I (Montoya 2008b). Acc Johnson I, New Caledonia (2 recs, Dutson 2011), Samoa (Dec Upolu, Watling 2001), NZ (1 rec 1983-85, OSNZ 2010, another 2010-2011 Miranda). Hypo Marshall Is (see hiaticula, Pyle and Engbring 1985).

Thinornis melanops Black-fronted Dotterel
NOTE: Boyd merged Elseyornis with Thinornis, whereas IOC v7.2 retained Elseyornis.
Res NZ (NI 1350 inds, SI 280 inds).

T. novaeseelandiae Shore Plover

NOTE: Included in Charadrius by Holdaway et al (2001), but recent authors (Boyd, IOC v7.2) maintain it in Thinornis.
Res Chatham Is (Rangatira/South East I 130 inds, 45 prs, Mangere I 2001-2003 (Miskelly and Powlesland 2013), extirp Western Reef, Aikman and Miskelly 2004). Extirp NZ (NI,SI; reint NI: Motuora I (failed; last 2 males removed from nearby Beehive Island Aug 2005), Portland I 100 inds, Mana I; acc elsewhere NI, presumably from recently reint populations, Saville).

T. dubius Little Ringed Plover
NOTE: Included in Charadrius by IOC v7.2, but Boyd places it in Thinornis based on genetic data.
T. d. curonicus Vis Oct-Apr Palau, Caroline Is (Feb Yap- Wiles et al 2000). Cas s Izu Is (Torishima), Ogasawara Is (Nishinoshima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima), Mariana Is (Guam, Wiles et al 2000), Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985). Acc ?Solomon Is (no records cited Dutson 2011).

T. placidus Long-billed Plover
NOTE: Included in Charadrius by IOC v7.2, but Boyd places it in Thinornis based on genetic data.
T. p. japonicus Acc Ogasawara Is (Hahajima).

Vanellus tricolor Banded Lapwing
Acc Jul-Aug Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).

V. miles Masked Lapwing
V. m. novaehollandiae Res New Caledonia (since 1996, breeding, Barre 2002, Barre and Bachy 2003), NZ (NI, SI), Chatham Is (Chatham, Pitt). Cas Kermadec Is (Raoul, Veitch et al 2004), Cook Is (Oct, McCormack 2006), Macquarie I (R. Clarke). Acc Solomon Is (Tanna, Dutson 2011), Vanuatu Mar (Wilson), Fiji (5-6 recs Viti Levu, Kadavu; Dutson and Watling 2007; Watling 2001), Wallis and Futuna (first record Sep 2014, this subsp, Thibault et al 2015), Feb and Nov Norfolk I, May Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001), Jun Campbell I, Nov Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002).
V. m. miles Res Lord Howe I (HANZAB; this form Bielewicz; McAllan et al 2004). Acc Solomon Is (New Georgia Is) Cook Is (Oct 2002 Rarotonga, McCormack 2006).

Erythrogonys cinctus Red-kneed Dotterel
NOTE: Within Boyd's subfamily Anarhynchinae, there are five clades; Erythrogonys and extralimital are basal, and the remaining three clades are afforded generic status as Eupoda, Anarhynchus, and Ochthodromus.
Acc Palau (Engbring 1988), NZ (Mar 1976 NI).

Eupoda veredus Oriental Plover
Cas Oct Palau (Pratt et al 2010), Aug-Mar NZ (13 records NI, SI, OSNZ 2010), Solomon Is (Oct Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Dec New Georgia, Gregory; Rennell). Acc New Caledonia (Oct-Dec, Dutson 2011), Vanuatu (Oct-Dec, Dutson, 2011), Nov Chathams Is (Chatham, Miskelly et al 2006), Sep and Nov Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I (Mar 2012, Spry), Kermadec Is (Apr, Sep Raoul I, Veitch et al 2004), Fiji (May Viti Levu).

E. leschenaultii Greater Sand-Plover
E. l. leschenaultii Vis Mariana Is (Guam, Rota, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Pohnpei Pratt et al 2010, Hayes et al 2016), Sep-Apr Solomon Is (Hadden 2004a), incl Green Is and Nuguria (Tarburton 2006). Cas Sep-Apr Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Sep, Nov, Feb Lord Howe I (3 recs, McAllan et al 2004), NZ (most 11 per year, NI, SI). Acc Norfolk I (1996, OSNZ 2010).

E. mongolus Lesser Sand-Plover

NOTE: Recent studies (Hirschfeld et al 2000) suggest that two species are involved: E. mongolus Mongolian Plover, including E. m. mongolus and E. m. stegmanni, and E. atrifrons Lesser Sand-Plover, including E. a. atrifrons, E. a. schaeferi, and E. a. pamirensis.
E. m. stegmanni Vis Mariana Is (Guam, Rota, Saipan, hypo Tinian, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is (incl Kosrae, Hayes et al 2016), Marshall Is. Cas Hawaiian Is (2 recs, prob this subsp: Lisianski Sep, Midway Jul, Pyle and Pyle 2009), s Izu Is, Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima, Iwojima).
E. m. mongolus ?Cas Micronesia (Baker 1951), Solomon Is (Mayr and Diamond 2001), Fiji (Watling 2001, duPont 1976).
E. m. atrifrons/schaeferi Acc NZ (Apr NI, Parrish 2000).
E. m. subsp? Vis Solomon Is Sep-Apr (Hadden 2004a) incl Green Is and Nuguria (Tarburton 2006), Santa Cruz Is; Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Oct-Apr Lord Howe I (14 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I, NZ (most 7 per year, NI, SI; most prob mongolus/stegmanni, as in Australia, but see above re atrifrons/schaeferi).

Anarhyncus bicinctus Double-banded Plover
A. b. bicinctus Res total pop 50,000 inds, OSNZ 2010 (NI, SI), Chatham Is (200-300 inds, non-migratory, Aikman and Miskelly 2004). Vis Mar-Aug New Caledonia (Barre and Bachy 2003), Jan-Nov Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I, Apr-Aug Fiji (Watling 2001). Cas Mar Vanuatu (Aniwa, McAllen 2003), Campbell I. Acc Kermadec Is (Sep Raoul, Veitch et al 2004).
A. b. exilis Elevated to specific status by Holdaway et al (2001) based on weight and leg length, but see OSNZ 2010). Res Auckland Is 730 inds.

A. obscurus New Zealand Plover
A. o. aquilonius Res total 1350 inds NZ (NI).
A. o. obscurus Res NZ (Stewart I c250 inds in 2005, Cooper; wintering count 74 in Jul Awarua Bay/Cow I, Cooper).

A. frontalis Wrybill
Res NZ 5100 inds, OSNZ 2010 (breeds SI; vis NI mostly Dec-Aug). Acc Chatham Is (Jun Chatham, Miskelly et al 2006).

Ochthodromus wilsonia Wilson's Plover
A. w. beldingi? Cas Apr, Sep, Jan Cocos I (said to be "always present in limited numbers" Dean and Montoya 2005). Acc Galapagos Is (May Santa Maria).

O. ruficapillus Red-capped Plover
Cas NZ (NI, SI).

O. alexandrinus Kentish Plover
NOTE: Sometimes nihonensis is included within dealbatus), but both are recognized here (Kennerley et al 2008, Rheindt et al 2011).
O. a. nihonensis Cas Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008), Mariana Is (Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991, Saipan- prob this subsp rather than O. a. alexandrinus, which is rare in Japan, Brazil 1991), Caroline Is (Feb Yap- Wiles et al 2000). Acc Ogasawara Is (Nishinoshima).


Rostratula australis Greater Painted-Snipe

NOTE: Christidis and Boles (2008) presented evidence for separation of Australian birds from African and Southeast Asian benghalensis.
Acc Feb Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), NZ (Aug SI).