TURNICIDAE (2 species)
Turnix maculosus Red-backed Buttonquail
NOTE: David and Gosselin (2002b) established that Turnix is masculine.
T. m. salamonis Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Florida Is, Dutson 2011).
T. varius Painted Buttonquail
T. v. novaecaledoniae Extinct? Res New Caledonia.
GLAREOLIDAE (3 species)
Stiltia isabella Australian Pratincole
NOTE: Boyd merged Stiltia with Glareola, but IOC v7.2 retains Stiltia.
Cas Solomon Is (Jun-Aug Buka, Bougainville, Dutson 2011). Acc New Caledonia (Jun-Aug Dutson 2011), Jan Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004, Hutton 1991).
Glareola maldivarum Oriental Pratincole
Vis Sep-May Palau (most Feb-Mar, Pratt et al 2010), Mariana Is (Guam, Rota, Saipan, Wiles et al 2000), Caroline Is (Yap, Truk). Cas Marshall Is, Solomon Is (Apr-Sep Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Jun Buka, Hadden 2004a), New Caledonia, Apr Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004), NZ (10 records Nov-May NI,SI, Stewart I). Acc Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima), May Norfolk I (Moore 1999), Kermadec Is (May Raoul, Veitch et al 2004).
G. lactea Small Pratincole
Hypo Mariana Is (Guam, Pyle and Engbring 1985). This report and another from Saipan are considered incorrect (Reichel and Glass 1991).
LARIDAE (60 species)
Recent genetic data suggests Laridae separate into four monophyletic clades as followed here; Boyd recognizes Gygis and Anous as separate subfamilies, but studies (Baker et al. 2007, Odeen et al. 2010, Cibois et al. 2016) show that Gygis nests within the noddies. The four groups are noddies, skimmers, terns, and gulls. Cibois et al (2016) merged Procelsterna with Anous. Noddies and skimmers may be basal to the remaining Laridae, and are placed herein first in the Laridae sequence. Regarding gulls, the findings of Pons et al (2005) were considered to reflect morphological and DNA data and were adopted by Christidis and Boles (2008) and by the AOU (2008). Taxonomy among the gulls, especially the large white-headed gulls, is contentious.
Anous stolidus Brown Noddy
A. s. pileatus Breeds Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Hawaiian Is (nw Is 75,000 prs, SE Is 40,000 prs, Pyle and Pyle 2009; 500,000 inds), Mariana Is (except Medinilla, Saragan, Alamagan, Asuncion, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is, Marshall Is (Spennemann and Benjamin 2004), Nauru (3000 inds, Buden 2008), Kiribati (Gilbert Is; throughout, Amerson 1969, Phoenix Is, Line Is), Society Is (present Sep-Mar), Solomon Is (incl Nuguria: Namotu, Takuu, Nukumanu, Hadden 2004b, but not Green Is, Tarburton 2006), New Caledonia (North and South Lagoons, Matthew, Hunter, Walpole, Chesterfields, Surprise, Barre and Dutson 2000; 1000 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002), Vanuatu (breeding not confirmed, Dutson 2011), Norfolk I (100-1000 prs, Priddel et al 2010), Lord Howe I 1000+ prs (McAllan et al 2004), Kermadec Is (Curtis I: 25 prs first noted 1989, Veitch et al 2004), Fiji, Wallis and Futuna (1500-2500 prs, Thibault et al 2015), Samoa (Tutuila, Manua Is,Rose Atoll- Watling 2001, Upolu beginning 1991, Parrish and Sherley 2012), Tuvalu, Tokelau Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Cook Is (Holyoak 1980), Gambier Is 150-242 prs, Pitcairn Is. Cas s Izu Is. Acc NZ (2 records Jun NI, OSNZ 2010). Eggs Lord Howe I Oct-Jan (Hutton 1991), Norfolk I Jan-Feb (Priddel et al 2010). At sea vicinity of breeding locations and intervening ocean.
A. s. ridgwayi Breeds Revillagigedo Is (Roca Partida, Socorro: Roca Oneal), Cocos I (breeds? Montoya 2003), Clipperton I, Easter I, Sala y Gomez Is, Desventurada Is (San Ambrosio I, San Felix I).
A. s. galapagensis Breeds Galapagos Is ("few thousand pairs", Swash and Still 2005). At sea year round in vicinity.
A. minutus Black Noddy
NOTE: A minutus considered conspecific with A. tenuirostris of the Indian Ocean. A. m. melanogenys may differ at the species level (for example, IOC v7.2) from marcusi and minutus, which breed in trees, while melanogenys breeds in rocky areas (Pyle and Pyle 2009). According to Lindsay Young 2008: "We also noticed that both sup species of Black noddy appear to be breeding on Lehua. Fledglings had both dark and orange legs with many variations in between. There were many orange legged adults, but I wasn't 100% sure that we saw a dark legged adult." Doug Pratt commented (Hawaiibirding 2009): "Lindsay Young has found possible examples of marcusi mixed in with melanogenys on Lehua Islet, but whether the 2 forms have ever nested on the same island (i. e. sympatrically) is not known, and Lehua offers very few trees for marcusi. The problem is complicated by the maturational sequence of Black Noddies. First-year birds of melanogenys have dark feet, which change gradually to orange as they age. These birds would look like marcusi EXCEPT that they have dark tails and sharply defined white caps (unlike the adults with pale gray tails and caps that fade gradually into the dark nape) that enable the observer to identify them as juveniles. So identifying dark-legged birds requires a combination of leg color, tail color, and cap configuration."
A. m. minutus Breeds From Solomon Is (incl Nuguria- Namotu, Takuu, Nukumanu, Hadden 2004b, but not Green Is, Tarburton 2006) and New Caledonia (>60,000 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnlle 2002, Chesterfields, Surprise, Walpole, Lifou, Barre and Dutson 2000) east to Kiribati (Gilbert Is, Amerson 1969; Line Is, Phoenix Is), Wallis and Futuna (1000 prs, Thibault et al 2015), Cook Is (Penrhyn 000s, Rakahanga 000s, Manihiki 000s, Pukapuka 000s, Suwarrow, Takutea, Holyoak 1980), Tuamotu Is, Gambier Is <50 prs, and s to Lord Howe I 200 prs (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I 100-1000 prs (Priddel et al 2010), Kermadec Is (1000 prs Herald Is, 50 prs Macauley, 40 prs Curtis, Veitch et al 2004). Does not breed Niue or Samoa (Watling 2001), but seen Savaii Aug (Reed 1980), and bred Tutuila, Tau, Rose I, Swains I before 1982 (Tarburton 2001). At sea vicinity, but apparent non-breeding ads and imms banded Fiji recovered Solomon Is (Watling 2001). Cas Vanuatu, Pitcairn Is (Henderson I, Bourne and David 1983), NZ (Aug-May NI and SI). Eggs Dec-Jan Norfolk I, Oct and Feb-Mar Lord Howe I (2 laying periods, Hutton 1991, McAllan et al 2004), Aug-Jan Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004).
A. m. marcusi Breeds Marcus I (=Minamitorishima), nw Hawaiian Is (15,000 prs French Frigate Shoals to Wake I, Pyle and Pyle 2009) to Mariana Is (Guam-Cocos I, Aguigan, Tinian, Medinilla, Guguan, Pagan, Maug, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is, Marshall Is (throughout, Amerson 1969), Johnston I, Wake I (Pyle and Pyle 2009), Nauru (likely this subsp- 15 of 31 recoveries from nw. Hawaiian Is, Buden 2008). Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. At sea vicinity.
A. m. melanogenys
Breeds Hawaiian Is 90,000 inds (Hawaii to Kauai, 2000 prs Pyle and Pyle 2009). At sea vicinity.
A. m. diamesus Breeds Clipperton I, Cocos I (3000 pairs, Montoya 2008a). At sea vicinity.
A. cerulea Blue Noddy
NOTE: Former Procelsterna cerulea Blue-grey Noddy, with subspecies cerulea and albivitta has been split into two species and merged with Anous (Cibois et al 2016). Subspecies are poorly-defined. Note, however, that murphyi has characters intermediate between A. cerulea and A. albivitta (Thibault and Bretagnolle 1999); IOC v7.2 includes murphyi in A. albivitta.
A. c. saxatilis Breeds Marcus I (=Minamitorishima), nw Hawaiian Is (3000-4000 prs, 1 recent rec SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009, 16,000 inds), Marshall Is (Taongi, Bikar, Pratt et al 1987; Pyle and Engbring 1985), Johnston Atoll (Pyle and Pyle 2009). At sea vicinity. Acc (this subsp?) Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima).
A. c. cerulea Breeds Kiribati except Phoenix Is. At sea vicinity.
A. c. nebouxi Breeds Kiribati (Phoenix Is), Tuvalu, Samoa (Namua, Tutuila, Aunuu, Manua; Nuutele, Nuuloa, McAllan and Hobcroft 2005, but Parrish and Sherley 2012 "very few inhabit the [Aleipata] islands"), Cook Is (Penrhyn, ?Mangaia, Holyoak 1980). At sea vicinity. Cas Aug Fiji (Watling 2001), Tonga (this subsp? Tafahi, Watling 2001).
A. c. teretirostris Breeds Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Arch except Gambier Is, Society Is. At sea vicinity. Eggs Sep-Oct Marquesas Is (Tahuata, Chester et al 1998).
A. c. murphyi Breeds Gambier Is 60-123 prs. At sea vicinity.
A. albivitta Gray Noddy
A. a. albivitta Breeds New Caledonia (Matthew, Hunter, Walpole, Barre and Dutson 2000), Lord Howe I <1000 prs (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I (Phillip and Nepean Is c1000 prs, Priddel et al 2010), Kermadec Is (10,000 prs Macauley, 5000+ prs Herald Is, 5000 prs Curtis, <1500 prs L'Esperance, 1000 prs Cheeseman, <100 prsRaoul, Veitch et al 2004), Tonga (Eua, Ata), NZ (ne NI: Three Kings Is, White I, Poor Knights Is, Mokohinau Is Aldermen Is, OSNZ 2010; acc Apr SI). At sea vicinity. Eggs Oct-Dec Norfolk I, Sep-Oct Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991), Aug-Sep Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004).
A. a. skottsbergii Breeds Pitcairn Is (Henderson I, Pitcairn I), Easter I. At sea vicinity.
A. a. imitatrix Breeds Desventurada Is (San Ambrosio I, San Felix I), Sala-y-Gomez I. At sea vicinity.
Gygis candida Pacific White-Tern
NOTE: Olson (2005), noting treatment by AOU (1998), supported species status for G. candida (separate from nominate G. alba of the Atlantic Ocean, and G. microrhyncha); differences between them were noted by Wingate and Watson (1974). The first 3 subspecies below considered to vary only clinally and combined as candida by Holyoak and Thibault (in HANZAB) and IOC v7.2.
G. c. rothschildi Breeds Hawaiian Is (25,000 prs nw islands, Pyle and Pyle 2009, 80,000 inds; Niihau: Kaula Rock; Oahu 250 prs, Olson 2005).
G. c. pacifica Breeds Polynesia e to Easter I, Clipperton I, Cocos I (absent Oct-Jan, Dean and Montoya 2005), Desventurada Is (Sala y Gomez Is), including Tonga (Niuafoou, Rinke 1986), Wallis and Futuna (approx 750 prs, Thibault et al 2015), Samoa (Savaii, Upolu, Tutuila, Tarburton 2001, Muse and Muse 1982), Cook Is (Holyoak 1980), Marquesas Is (Hatutu), Tuamotu Arch, Gambier Is <600 prs, but excluding Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), and Marquesas Is (Eiao to Fatu Hiva). Acc Revillagigedo Is (Jul Socorro: Roca Oneal, Brattstrom and Howell 1956), Galapagos Is (Genovesa, at sea to sw).
G. c. royana May vary only clinally from G. a. candida. Breeds Norfolk I 2000-2500 prs, Lord Howe I 60-100 prs, Kermadec Is (<10 prs Raoul I, Veitch et al 2004). Usually absent Lord Howe I Jun-Sep (McAllan et al 2004). Cas NZ (10 records Apr-Jul NI, 3 records Jan-Mar SI, OSNZ 2010). Eggs Oct-Apr Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991), Oct-Jan Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004).
G. c. candida Breeds Mariana Is (Guam, Rota, Tinian, Saipan, Medinilla, Guguan, Maug, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is (Hayes et al 2016 list Kosrae birds as G. p. pacifica), Marshall Is (Amerson 1969, Spennemann and Benjamin 2004), Kiribati (this taxon? Gilbert Is: Makin, Kuria, Onotoa, Amerson 1969), Wake I, Nauru (1000-2000 ads, Buden 2008), Solomon Is (Nuguria, Tulun, Takuu, Nukumanu, Hadden 2004a, 2004b; Temotu, Dutson 2011), New Caledonia (Walpole 20-80 prs, Chesterfields, ?Hunter, ?Matthew, Barre and Dutson 2000), Fiji (Rotuma, Vatulele, Vatoa, noilau). Vis Iwo Is, Ogasawara Is, Solomon Is (other than breeding sites) and Santa Cruz Is, Vanuatu.
G. c. leucopes Breeds Pitcairn Is (Ducie I, Henderson I, Bourne and David 1983).
G. microrhyncha Little White-Tern
NOTE: Considered conspecific with G. candida by some authors based on limited intergradation in Marquesas Is, although differences in bill coloration may provide an isolating mechanism (Wingate and Watson 1974); size difference is marked (Olson 2005, Wingate and Watson 1974). This may be a relict population of a formerly widespread species now being genetically swamped by G. candida (see Olson 2005).
Breeds Kiribati (now extirpated? Phoenix Is, Line Is), Marquesas Is (Eiao to Fatu Hiva). Acc Hawaiian Is (Apr 1924 Oahu, Olson 2005).
Creagrus furcatus Swallow-tailed Gull
Res Galapagos Is 10,000-15,000 prs. Post-breeding dispersal e to Ecuador, Peru. Cas Cocos I (Montoya 2003, Apr-May Zook).
Rissa tridactyla Black-legged Kittiwake
At sea n Pacific to 30N, incl Guadalupe I. Cas Dec-Mar Hawaiian Is (most nw Is, 5 recs se Is all Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
R. brevirostris Red-legged Kittiwake
At sea n Pacific to 40N (Olsen and Larsson 2004).
Xema sabini Sabine's Gull
At sea Apr-Jun and Aug-Oct (McGrath and Feeenstra 2005) off w coast N. and S. America incl Revillagigedo Is (Apr San Benedicto, Jehl and Parkes 1982), Cocos I (Montoya 2003). Acc Australia Mar-Jun, off Hawaiian Is (May, R. Baird).
C. philadelphia Bonaparte's Gull
Cas Hawaiian Is (Dec-May, 3 recs NW Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Revillagigedo Is.
C. ridibundus Black-headed Gull
Vis Nov-May Palau (most early spring, Pratt et al 2010, Dec-Feb and Jun Mariana Is (Kessler 1999, Clements 2003). Cas Ogasawara Is, Caroline Is (Feb-Mar Yap, Wiles et al 2000), Oct-Dec Hawaiian Is (6 recs Midway I, 3 se Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Solomon Is (Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Guadalcanal Feb-Mar, Hadden 2004a).
Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus Gray-hooded Gull
Cas Galapagos Is (first record 1978, Swash and Still 2005). Fewer than 10 recs Galapagos Is (eBird).
C. bulleri Black-billed Gull
Res NZ 50,000-100,000 prs (breeds NI, SI, vis Stewart I). Cas Nov-Dec Snares Is.
C. scopulinus Red-billed Gull
NOTE: According to HANZAB there is "no justification for treatment of scopulinus as separate species...", although structural and plumage differences suggest allospecies treatment (Schodde, in Sibley and Monroe 1990; Enticott and Tipling 1997; Given et al 2005). IOC v7.2 considers scopulinus a subspecies of C. novaehollandiae.
Res NZ total pop 500,000 prs (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Snares Is 160 prs (Miskelly et al 2001), Auckland Is, Campbell I. Cas Norfolk I (HANZAB), Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004).
C. novaehollandiae Silver Gull
C. n. forsteri Res New Caledonia (most Grand Terre, reported Chesterfields and Lifou, Barre and Dutson 2000; 100-1500 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002).
C. n. novaehollandiae Cas Norfolk I (HANZAB).
novaehollandiae/scopulinus Cas Dec-Apr Vanuatu, Jan Fiji (Kadavu), Lord Howe I (11 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Kermadec Is (Nov-Dec, May, Veitch et al 2004). Acc ?Society Is, ?Marquesas Is (duPont 1976); these reports questionable, (Pyle and Pyle 2009).
Leucophaeus modestus Gray Gull
Acc May Cocos I (Montoya 2003); considered "doubtful" (Montoya 2012).
L. atricilla Laughing Gull
L. a. megalopterus Vis Sep-Apr Hawaiian Is (mostly SE Is and first fall birds, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Cocos I (Dean and Montoya 2005), Galapagos Is (Oct-May, Swash and Still 2005). Cas Johnston I, Marshall Is (Bikini), Kiribati, Palmyra (Vanderwerf et al 2004), Guadalupe I. Acc Caroline Is (Pohnpei Apr, Kosrae Jan-Feb, Pratt et al 2010; Chuuk Jun 2011, McKinlay, pers. comm., Gambier Is (Mar Mangareva, Vanderwerf et al 2004), Fiji (May, Watling 2001; 2004-2005 Viti Levu, Dec 1994-95 Kadavu, Dutson and Watling 2007), Samoa (Upolu Jan-Feb, Muse et al 1980, Muse and Muse 1982, and Feb 1994, Tarburton 2001; Tutuila: alternate Mar, Elepaio 58:50), Cook Is (McCormack 2006), Lord Howe Jan 2010 (Rudder), Pitcairn Is (Pitcairn, Vanderwerf et al 2004).
L. pipixcan Franklin's Gull
Vis Oct-Jun Revillagigedo Is, Galapagos Is. Cas Mar-Jun Hawaiian Is (most are adults in spring, with only 5 fall and one winter rec, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Marshall Is (Majuro May, McKinlay pers. comm.; Pratt et al 2010; Jun 1976, Pratt et al 2010), Johnston I, Caroline Is (Truk Aug Pyle and Engbring 1987); Pohnpei Jul, McKinlay pers. comm.; Pratt et al 2010), Kiribati, Marquesas Is, Cocos I (2 recods Apr, Dean and Montoya 2005), Clipperton I, NZ (Jul 2002 SI, Onley and Schweigman 2004; Sep-Nov 2009 NI). Acc Kermadec Is (Jul Raoul, Onley and Schweigman 2004, Veitch et al 2004).
L. fuliginosus Lava Gull
Res <400 prs Galapagos Is (Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Isabela).
Larus heermanni Heermann's Gull
NOTE: Sternkopf (2011) showed that Heerman's Gull groups with the band-tailed gulls, only two of which, Pacific Gull L. pacificus and Black-tailed Gull L. crassirostris have occurred in the Pacific Region.
Cas Guadalupe I. Acc Revillagigedo Is (Apr Socorro I).
L. pacificus Pacific Gull
L. p. pacificus? Acc NZ (Dargaville Jan 2010, NZBO).
L. crassirostris Black-tailed Gull
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Mariana Is (Jan Guam, Wiles), Solomon Is (May Bougainville).
L. canus Mew Gull
NOTE: Both IOC v7.2 and Boyd do not raise any of the four subspecies to species level, although various splits have been proposed, including elevating all to species level. Further genetic studies that include all four taxa are awaited (IOC v7.2).
L. c. kamtschatschensis Cas Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima); Hawaiian Is (Dec Kure; this subsp rather than brachrhynchus per AOU, Pyle and Pyle 2009; Midway Nov-Dec 2016, eBird photos; Kauai Jan 2017, eBird photos). Hypo (this subsp?) Palau (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
L. c. brachyrhynchus Acc Hawaiian Is (Oahu Jan-Apr 2015, eBird photos).
L. delawarensis Ring-billed Gull
Vis Aug-May Hawaiian Is (most first fall birds in SE Is with only 2 confirmed recs NW Is, one banded in Nevada as chick summer 1987 recovered Hawaii Dec 1987, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Guadalupe I. Cas Kiribati (Line Is), Revillagigedo Is, Galapagos Is.
L. occidentalis Western Gull
L. o. wymaniRes Guadalupe I. Hypo (this sp or subsp?) Revillagigedo Is (Clarion, Brattstrom and Howell 1982; Howell and Webb 1995 state this sighting equivocal, poss ref to Yellow-footed Gull).
L. o. occidentalis Acc Hawaiian Is (Dec-Mar Oahu, no other confirmed records, Pyle and Pyle 2009; Jan-Feb 2017 Midway, eBird photos- this subsp?); >200 miles offshore ne Pacific cruise (2 ads reported to eBird May 2014, ID by P. Lehman; this subsp?).
L. livens Yellow-footed Gull
Hypo Revillagigedo Is (see occidentalis), above.
L. dominicanus Kelp Gull
NOTE: Taxonomy of this species was reviewed by Jiguet (2002); NZ and S. American birds were indistinguishable, but populations in Antarctica are separable as L. d. austrinus.
L. d. dominicanus Res NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Bounty Is, Antipodes Is, Snares Is (first bred ca 1990, Miskelly et al 2001), Auckland Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I 500 prs. At sea Tasman Sea, but only cas Aug and Nov-Dec Lord Howe I (4 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Mar and Sep Norfolk I, Kermadec Is (Dec, Jan, Aug, Veitch et al 2004), Jun 1994 Niue (Powlesland et al 2000), Galapagos Is (this subsp?), Juan Fernandez Is. Acc Easter I (Jan 2016, eBird- no details), Kiribati Sep 1999 (Western Birds 36:296-302), Fiji Dec 2010 (eBird photos).
L. heuglini Heuglin's Gull
NOTE: This taxon is often considered a subspecies of L. fuscus Lesser Black-backed Gull eg IOC v7.2; Boyd lists it as a full species. Paler breeders in the eastern part of the range of L. heuglini are often separated as L. heuglini taimyrensis, Taimyr Gull, but may be hybrids of L. heuglini and L. vegae.
L. h. taimyrensis An adult was photographed in fall 2010 in the nw. Hawaiian Is (Force), thought to be a first record for the Hawaiian Is. One at Midway, Jan-Feb 2017, VanderWerf (eBird, details, photos) was thought to be this taxon. Pyle and Pyle (2009) note: "An .....individual photographed on Kure in March 1988 (HRBP 0812-0813) may be smithsonianus or "taimyrensis" (possibly a hybrid between Herring Gull and Lesser Black-backed Gull L. fuscus heuglini)."
L. californicus California Gull
L. c. subsp.? Vis Nov-Mar Guadalupe I. Cas (L. c. californicus) Hawaiian Is (Jul-Apr Oahu, only 5 confirmed recs, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Revillagigedo Is (Nov, May Socorro 2-3 recs).
L. smithsonianus American Herring Gull
NOTE: This taxon differs specifically from European taxa L. argentatus subsp. with which it was previously considered conspecific (Yesou 2002, Sangster et al 2005).
Vis Hawaiian Is ( 3 recs Jan-Apr NW Is, 17 confirmed SE Is Oct-Mar, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Cas Johnston I, Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Clarion I), Cocos I (Montoya 2003).
L. glaucescens Glaucous-winged Gull
Vis Oct-May Hawaiian Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009), Guadalupe I. Cas Revillagigedo Is (Nov Socorro). Acc Johnston I, ?Wake I (Pyle and Pyle 2009); >200 miles east of Kuril Is Nov 2015 (eBird). br>
L. hyperboreus Glaucous Gull
L. h. pallidissimus Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Izu Is (Torishima Mar 2004, eBird).
L. h. barrovianus Cas Hawaiian Is (Dec-Apr, confirmed all this subsp., Pyle and Pyle 2009).
L. thayeri Thayer's Gull
NOTE: Most current authors (AOU, IOC v7.2. Boyd) treat this taxon as a full species, although its relationships, especially with Iceland Gull L. glaucoides are contentious.
Cas Nov-Apr Guadalupe I. Hypo Hawaiian Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009).
L. schistisagus Slaty-backed Gull
Cas Hawaiian Is (Oct-May, most NW Is, 3 recs SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009); at sea nw Pacific, s Izu Is (Torishima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima, Hahajima). Acc Mariana Is (Guam, Wiles et al 1993, but not listed by Wiles 2005; Mar 2014 Guam, eBird-no details; Rota Feb 2015, Jan 2016 prob same bird apparently injured- photos eBird).
L. vegae Vega Gull
NOTE: This taxon is generally treated as a full species (IOC v7.2, Boyd, Collinson et al 2008); many authors include as a second subspecies L. v. mongolicus, although Boyd treats mongolicus as a full species.
L. v. vegae Vis Hawaiian Is (Oct-Apr NW Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Cas Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is (Maug, Reichel and Glass 1991; Agrihan, Reichel and Glass 1991, likely this taxon, Wiles et al 1993; Jan Agiguan, Baker 1951, but Jouanin considered this juvenile specimen either L. fuscus Lesser Black-backed Gull or L. taimyrensis, Reichel and Glass 1991). Hypo Palau (listed as L. argentatus, Pyle and Engbring 1985).