TURNICIDAE (2 species)

Turnix maculosus Red-backed Buttonquail
NOTE: David and Gosselin (2002b) established that Turnix is masculine.
T. m. salamonis Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Florida Is, Dutson 2011).

T. varius Painted Buttonquail
T. v. novaecaledoniae Extinct? Res New Caledonia.

GLAREOLIDAE (3 species)

Stiltia isabella Australian Pratincole
Cas Solomon Is (Jun-Aug Buka, Bougainville, Dutson 2011). Acc New Caledonia (Jun-Aug Dutson 2011), Jan Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004, Hutton 1991).

Glareola maldivarum Oriental Pratincole
Vis Sep-May Palau (most Feb-Mar, Pratt et al 2010), Mariana Is (Guam, Rota, Saipan, Wiles et al 2000), Caroline Is (Yap, Truk). Cas Marshall Is, Solomon Is (Apr-Sep Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Jun Buka, Hadden 2004a), New Caledonia, Apr Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004), NZ (10 records Nov-May NI,SI, Stewart I). Acc Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima), May Norfolk I (Moore 1999), Kermadec Is (May Raoul, Veitch et al 2004).

G. lactea Small Pratincole
Hypo Mariana Is (Guam, Pyle and Engbring 1985). This report and another from Saipan are considered incorrect (Reichel and Glass 1991).

LARIDAE (29 species)

The conclusions of Pons et al (2005) were considered to reflect morphological and DNA data and were adopted by Christidis and Boles (2008) and by the AOU (2008), and are followed below.

Creagrus furcatus Swallow-tailed Gull
Res Galapagos Is 10,000-15,000 prs. Post-breeding dispersal e to Ecuador, Peru. Cas Cocos I (Montoya 2003, Apr-May Zook).

Rissa tridactyla Black-legged Kittiwake
At sea n Pacific to 30N, incl Guadalupe I. Cas Dec-Mar Hawaiian Is (most nw Is, 5 recs se Is all Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

R. brevirostris Red-legged Kittiwake
At sea n Pacific to 40N (Olsen and Larsson 2004).

Xema sabini Sabine's Gull
At sea Apr-Jun and Aug-Oct (McGrath and Feeenstra 2005) off w coast N. and S. America incl Revillagigedo Is (Apr San Benedicto, Jehl and Parkes 1982), Cocos I (Montoya 2003). Acc Australia Mar-Jun, off Hawaiian Is (May, R. Baird).

Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus Gray-hooded Gull
Acc Galapagos Is (1978, Swash and Still 2005).

C. novaehollandiae Silver Gull

NOTE: According to HANZAB there is "no justification for treatment of scopulinus as separate species...", although structural and plumage differences suggest allospecies treatment (Schodde, in Sibley and Monroe 1990; Enticott and Tipling 1997; Given et al 2005).
C. n. forsteri Res New Caledonia (most Grand Terre, reported Chesterfields and Lifou, Barre and Dutson 2000; 100-1500 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002).
C. n. novaehollandiae Cas Norfolk I (HANZAB).
novaehollandiae/scopulinus Cas Dec-Apr Vanuatu, Jan Fiji (Kadavu), Lord Howe I (11 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Kermadec Is (Nov-Dec, May, Veitch et al 2004). Acc ?Society Is, ?Marquesas Is (duPont 1976); these reports questionable, (Pyle and Pyle 2009).

C. scopulinus Red-billed Gull
Res NZ total pop 500,000 prs (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Snares Is 160 prs (Miskelly et al 2001), Auckland Is, Campbell I. Cas Norfolk I (HANZAB), Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004).

C. bulleri Black-billed Gull
Res NZ 50,000-100,000 prs (breeds NI, SI, vis Stewart I). Cas Nov-Dec Snares Is.

C. ridibundus Black-headed Gull
Vis Nov-May Palau (most early spring, Pratt et al 2010, Dec-Feb and Jun Mariana Is (Kessler 1999, Clements 2003). Cas Ogasawara Is, Caroline Is (Feb-Mar Yap, Wiles et al 2000), Oct-Dec Hawaiian Is (6 recs Midway I, 3 se Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Solomon Is (Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Guadalcanal Feb-Mar, Hadden 2004a).

C. philadelphia Bonaparte's Gull
Cas Hawaiian Is (Dec-May, 3 recs NW Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Revillagigedo Is.

Leucophaeus atricilla Laughing Gull
L. a. megalopterus Vis Sep-Apr Hawaiian Is (mostly SE Is and first fall birds, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Cocos I (Dean and Montoya 2005), Galapagos Is (Oct-May, Swash and Still 2005). Cas Johnston I, Marshall Is (Bikini), Kiribati, Palmyra (Vanderwerf et al 2004), Guadalupe I. Acc Caroline Is (Pohnpei Apr, Kosrae Jan-Feb, Pratt et al 2010; Chuuk Jun 2011, McKinlay, pers. comm., Gambier Is (Mar Mangareva, Vanderwerf et al 2004), Fiji (May, Watling 2001; 2004-2005 Viti Levu, Dec 1994-95 Kadavu, Dutson and Watling 2007), Samoa (Upolu Jan-Feb, Muse et al 1980, Muse and Muse 1982, and Feb 1994, Tarburton 2001; Tutuila: alternate Mar, Elepaio 58:50), Cook Is (McCormack 2006), Lord Howe Jan 2010 (Rudder), Pitcairn Is (Pitcairn, Vanderwerf et al 2004).

L. pipixcan Franklin's Gull
Vis Oct-Jun Revillagigedo Is, Galapagos Is. Cas Mar-Jun Hawaiian Is (most are adults in spring, with only 5 fall and one winter rec, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Marshall Is (Majuro May, McKinlay pers. comm.; Pratt et al 2010; Jun 1976, Pratt et al 2010), Johnston I, Caroline Is (Truk Aug Pyle and Engbring 1987); Pohnpei Jul, McKinlay pers. comm.; Pratt et al 2010), Kiribati, Marquesas Is, Cocos I (2 recods Apr, Dean and Montoya 2005), Clipperton I, NZ (Jul 2002 SI, Onley and Schweigman 2004; Sep-Nov 2009 NI). Acc Kermadec Is (Jul Raoul, Onley and Schweigman 2004, Veitch et al 2004).

L. modestus Gray Gull
Acc May Cocos I (Montoya 2003); considered "doubtful" (Montoya 2012).

Larus crassirostris Black-tailed Gull
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Mariana Is (Jan Guam, Wiles), Solomon Is (May Bougainville).

L. heermanni Heermann's Gull
Cas Guadalupe I. Acc Revillagigedo Is (Apr Socorro I).

L. fuliginosus Lava Gull
Res <400 prs Galapagos Is (Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Isabela).

L. canus Common Gull

NOTE: Some authors consider the 3 subspecies to be full species, thus herein L. kamtschatschensis Eastern Common Gull.
L. c. kamtschatschensis Cas Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima). Acc Hawaiian Is (Dec Kure; this subsp rather than brachrhynchus per AOU, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Hypo (this subsp?) Palau (Pyle and Engbring 1985).

L. delawarensis Ring-billed Gull
Vis Aug-May Hawaiian Is (most first fall birds in SE Is with only 2 confirmed recs NW Is, one banded in Nevada as chick summer 1987 recovered Hawaii Dec 1987, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Guadalupe I. Cas Kiribati (Line Is), Revillagigedo Is, Galapagos Is.

L. occidentalis Western Gull
L. o. wymani Res Guadalupe I. Hypo (this sp or subsp?) Revillagigedo Is (Clarion, Brattstrom and Howell 1982; Howell and Webb 1995 state this sighting equivocal, poss ref to Yellow-footed Gull).
L. o. occidentalis Acc Hawaiian Is (Dec-Mar Oahu, no other confirmed records, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

L. californicus California Gull
L. c. subsp.? Vis Nov-Mar Guadalupe I. Cas (L. c. californicus) Hawaiian Is (Jul-Apr Oahu, only 5 confirmed recs, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Revillagigedo Is (Nov Socorro).

L. heuglini Heuglin's Gull

NOTE: This taxon is often considered a subspecies of L. fuscus Lesser Black-backed Gull. Paler breeders in the eastern part of the range of heuglini are often separated as L. heuglini taimyrensis, Taimyr Gull, but may be hybrids of heuglini and L. vegae.
L. h. taimyrensis An adult was photographed in fall 2010 in the nw. Hawaiian Is (Force), thought to be a first record for the Hawaiian Is. Pyle and Pyle (2009) note: "An .....individual photographed on Kure in March 1988 (HRBP 0812-0813) may be smithsonianus or "taimyrensis" (possibly a hybrid between Herring Gull and Lesser Black-backed Gull L. fuscus heuglini)."

L. dominicanus Kelp Gull

NOTE: Taxonomy of this species was reviewed by Jiguet (2002); NZ and S. American birds were indistinguishable, but populations in Antarctica are separable as L. d. austrinus.
L. d. dominicanus Res NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Bounty Is, Antipodes Is, Snares Is (first bred ca 1990, Miskelly et al 2001), Auckland Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I 500 prs. At sea Tasman Sea, but only cas Aug and Nov-Dec Lord Howe I (4 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Mar and Sep Norfolk I, Kermadec Is (Dec, Jan, Aug, Veitch et al 2004), Jun Niue (Powlesland et al 2000), Galapagos Is (this subsp?).

L. glaucescens Glaucous-winged Gull
Vis Oct-May Hawaiian Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009), Guadalupe I. Cas Revillagigedo Is (Nov Socorro). Acc Johnston I, ?Wake I (Pyle and Pyle 2009).

L. livens Yellow-footed Gull
Hypo Revillagigedo Is (see occidentalis), below.

L. hyperboreus Glaucous Gull
L. h. pallidissimus Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).
L. h. barrovianus Cas Hawaiian Is (Dec-Apr, confirmed all this subsp., Pyle and Pyle 2009).

L. smithsonianus American Herring Gull

NOTE: This taxon appears to differ specifically from European taxa L. argentatus subsp. with which it was previously considered conspecific (Yesou 2002).
Vis Hawaiian Is ( 3 recs Jan-Apr NW Is, 17 confirmed SE Is Oct-Mar, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Cas Johnston I, Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Clarion I), Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

L. vegae East Siberian (Vega) Gull.

NOTE: This taxon may deserve specific status (Yesou 2002).
L. v. vegae Vis Hawaiian Is (Oct-Apr NW Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Cas Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is (Maug, Reichel and Glass 1991; Agrihan, Reichel and Glass 1991, likely this taxon, Wiles et al 1993; Jan Agiguan, Baker 1951, but Jouanin considered this juvenile specimen either L. fuscus Lesser Black-backed Gull or L. taimyrensis, a northern Siberian Herring Gull taxon, Reichel and Glass 1991). Hypo Palau (listed as L. argentatus, Pyle and Engbring 1985).

L. thayeri Thayer's Gull
Cas Nov-Apr Guadalupe I. Hypo Hawaiian Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009).

L. schistisagus Slaty-backed Gull
Cas Hawaiian Is (Oct-May, most NW Is, 3 recs SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc s Izu Is (Torishima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima). Hypo Mariana Is (Guam, Wiles et al 1993, but not listed by Wiles 2005).