LARIDAE (continued; Sterninae)

As noted above, terns are considered herein a subfamily of Laridae, although they are often separated as their own family Sternidae. Recent genetic studies (Bridge et al 2005) showed that the genus Sterna was paraphyletic; this required new generic names for the separate clades, as well as a new sequence of genera.

Onychoprion fuscata Sooty Tern
O. f. oahuensis Breeds Ogasawara Is (Nishinoshima; these birds sometimes included in nubilosa), Mariana Is (Agiguan, Guguan, Uracas, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau (Helen I, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (Truk, Pohnpei, Yap), Marshall Is 98,550 inds (Taongi, Bikar, Taka, Eniwetok, Ujalong, Ailinginae, Jaluit, Amerson 1969); Marcus I (=Minamitorishima), Wake I (1,750,000 inds, King 1974), Hawaiian Is (Kure to Manana) 1,500,000 prs, 8,000,000 inds; Johnston Atoll 600,000 inds (King 1974); Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Kuria, Nonouti, Amerson 1969, Phoenix Is 1,000,000 prs, Line Is 10,000,000 prs). Vis Iwo Is, Caroline Is (Kosrae, Hayes et al 2016). Acc Nauru (one banded Jarvis I, Kiribati, recovered 1973, Buden 2008). At sea vicinity, imms dispersive, but recoveries suggest allopatry of breeding and non-breeding ranges of oahuensis and serrata (King 1974). Banding shows Hawaiian breeders to sw. Nov-Jan (Pyle and Pyle 2009). Most reports westward as far as Japan and Philippines apparently storm-driven (King 1974).
O. f. serrata Breeds Solomon Is (but not Bougainville area, Hadden 2004a, or Green Is and Nuguria, Tarburton 2006), New Caledonia (Surprise, Matthew, Chesterfields, Southern Lagoon islets, Barre and Dutson 2000; 200-300 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002), Fiji, Tonga, Cook Is (Penrhyn 100-10,000 prs, Suwarrow 100,000-10,000,000 prs, extirp Palmerston, Holyoak 1980), Samoa (Rose I 300,000 inds, Tarburton 2001), Marquesas Is 1,000,000 prs, Society Is, Tubuai Is, Tuamotu Arch. At sea vicinity, incl Vanuatu (Dutson 2011), but imms dispersive and non-breeders pelagic.
O. f. kermadeci (included in serrata by HANZAB and OSNZ 2010) Breeds Norfolk I (Philip and Nepean Is 1000-10,000 prs, Priddel et al 2010), Lord Howe I 1,000,000 prs, Kermadec Is (10,000 prs Macauley,<10,000 prs Herald, 5500 prs Curtis, 5000+ Cheeseman, <5000 Raoul, Veitch et al 2004). Cas NZ (possibly annual after storms, OSNZ 2010; Feb and Jun NI, Feb and Sep SI). At sea vicinity but imms dispersive and non-breeders pelagic. Birds banded Lord Howe I recovered mid-Pacific and near Philippine Is (Hutton 1991) and one banded as a chick Kermadec Is recovered as breeding adult on Seychelles (Veitch et al 2004). Absent Kermadecs Jun-Aug (Veitch et al 2004). Eggs Aug-Dec Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I, Oct-Dec Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004).
O. f. crissalis Breeds Revillagigedo Is (Roca Partida, Socorro: Roca Oneal), Cocos I (breeds? Montoya 2003, 2008a), Clipperton I, Galapagos Is (Culpepper), Sala y Gomez Is, Desventurada Is (San Felix I), Easter I. At sea vicinity, imms dispersive.
O. f. luctuosa Breeds Juan Fernandez Is. At sea vicinity.

O. lunatus Grey-backed (Spectacled) Tern
Breeds c Pacific from Hawaiian Is 200,000 inds, absent Nov-Jan (NW Is 43,000 prs, Pyle and Pyle 2009; Oahu: Moko Manu 10-30 prs, Kaula 550 prs, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Mariana Is (Guguan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Johnston I, Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), Tonga (Nomuka), Samoa (Rose I, Tutuila, Aunuu, Tarburton 2001), Society Is, Tuamotu Is. Extirp Tuvalu, Tokelau Is (Watling 2001). Vis Mariana Is (Tinian, Alamagan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Wake I, Marshall Is (breeding not known either location, Wiles et al 2000, Wiles 2005), Caroline Is (Yap, Pyle and Engbring 1985, Wiles 2005; Chuuk, Buden 2006). Cas Solomon Is (not known to breed, Hadden 2004a, Penhallurick 2003; 14 in Solomon Sea Aug, M. Carter), Fiji (not currently breeding, Watling 2001), Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998), Easter I. Acc Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima), Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008), Aug Clipperton I, NZ (2 records NI Jan-Feb, OSNZ 2010).

O. anaethetus Bridled Tern
O. a. anaethetus Breeds Palau, Solomon Is (not listed as breeding Green Is, Tarburton 2006), New Caledonia (Doughty et al 1999; uncommon breeder Southern Lagoon, Barre and Dutson 2000; 500-1000 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002), Fiji (Watling 2001), Samoa (Upolu 130 inds, Savaii 82 inds, Tarburton 2001), Tonga (Tongatapu, Vavau, Watling 2001), Wallis and Futuna (Uvea, Watling 2001; <10 prs 2014, Thibault et al 2015). At sea vicinity, incl Vanuatu (Dutson 2011), and north to Iwo Is (Watling 2001, Muse and Muse 1982). Acc Marshall Is (Bikar, Pratt et al 1987), NZ (Nov SI).
O. a. nelsoni At sea off Mexico Mar-Aug and Sep-Feb, poss further south?

O. aleutica Aleutian Tern
At sea Oct-Apr nc and nw Pacific s to 45N.

Sternula albifrons Little Tern
S. a. sinensis Res Solomon Is (Bougainville, ?Isabel, Dutson 2011), Mariana Is (Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991, Pyle et al 2001), Hawaiian Is (NW Is only confirmed records, present yearly May-Sep since 1980, at least 3 breeding records, most appear to be this subsp, but 2 specimens Jun and Sep French Frigate Shoals identified as S. a. pusilla, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Vis Oct-Apr Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is (Guam, Rota, Reichel and Glass 1991), Oct-Apr Palau, Caroline Is (Wiles et al 2000; Pohnpei, McKinlay pers. comm., Kosrae Hayes et al 2016), Marshall Is (Majuro, McKinlay pers. comm.); Johnston Atoll (Pyle and Pyle 2009); Feb-May, obs in nuptial plumage, but prob occurs Oct-May New Caledonia (Barre and Bachy 2003); Vanuatu (Malekula, Efate, Dutson 2011), Oct-Dec and Feb-Mar Lord Howe I (4 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Oct-Nov Kermadec Is (2 records, Veitch et al 2004), Oct-Apr NZ (these birds visitors from northern hemisphere [chick banded at nest near Tokyo Jun 99 rec Miranda; one banded Jun 2001 in Chiva Region of Japan recovered Firth of Thames Jan 2002], although one recovery in NZ of imm banded in Vic, Australia; this prob an aberrant event- C. Minton, pers comm., but T. Habraken believes birds from both sources occur in NZ. Two ads full breeding plumage NI Jan 2001 suggestive of Australian origin, D. Lawrie). Acc Fiji (Lakemba), Samoa (Upolu), (this sp or S. nereis) Norfolk I Nov 1975 (HANZAB), Dec-Feb Chatham Is (Bell and Bell 2002).

S. antillarum Least Tern
S. a. browni or mexicana? Cas Hawaiian Is (few confirmed records NW Is: Midway unsuccessful nest 1999, Pyle et al 2001; possible breeding attempt French Frigate 1991, Pyle and Pyle 2009; occurs regularly Mar-Nov SE Is, where 28 confirmed records of Sternula terns were Least, none Little, 4 breeding records Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

S. nereis Fairy Tern
S. n. exsul Res New Caledonia (rare, possibly declining, a few dozen prs Southern Lagoon and Chesterfields, Barre and Dutson 2000; <10 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002; 65-200 prs most in Northern Lagoon 2006-2008, Dutson 2011); Coral Sea Islands (4 birds nesting; poss exsul), East Diamond Islet, Dec 2006 (Mustoe); Cathy Key Dec 2009- listed as "New Caledonia subsp." (Waugh).
S. n. davisae Res NZ (NI 10-12 prs, 40 inds; extirp SI, OSNZ 2010).
S. n. subsp. May be nesting Samoa (Upolu: incr sightings there recent years, Watling 2001, Tarburton 2001). Acc ?Fiji; Norfolk I Nov 1975 (this sp or S. nereis, HANZAB).

Gelochelidon nilotica Gull-billed Tern
G. n. macrotarsa? Cas NZ (NI, SI), Solomon Is (Russell Is Jul, Dutson 2001, Guadalcanal, Dutson 2011 ), Jan-Feb Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).
G. n. affinis? Acc Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Jan-Jun 1998, prob same bird, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Marshall Is (Kwajalein Oct 2014, eBird), Mariana Is (Guam Nov, Wiles et al 2000; Nov 2016 eBird photos, ?Saipan, Pratt et al 1987, Reichel and Glass 1991).

Hydroprogne caspia Caspian Tern
NOTE: IOC v7.2 considers this species monotypic.
H. c. strenua? Res NZ 3000 inds (NI, SI). Cas Hawaiian Is (SE Is only, most Sep-Jun, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Dec and Feb Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006). Acc Jan Kermadec Is, Sep-Nov Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004).

Chlidonias niger Black Tern

NOTE: Establishment of Chlidonias as masculine is discussed by David and Gosselin (2002b).
C. n. surinamensis Cas Hawaiian Is (most Sep-Jun, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Galapagos Is (4 recs Nov-Mar, eBird, photo), at sea en route Cocos Is (eBird), 4 sightings at sea within ca. 100 miles of Malpelo I (May 1990, Mar 2016, eBird). Acc Clipperton I (Aug 1958 details eBird), Revillagigedo Is (Socorro Dec 2015, eBird).

C. leucopterus White-winged Tern
Vis mostly Sep-May Mariana Is (Guam, Tinian, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is (Yap- Clements 2003; Pohnpei 1 rec Apr, Pratt et al 2010), Solomon Is (Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Rennell: acc L Tenggano), New Caledonia (Dutson 2011), Norfolk I, NZ (NI, SI, one breeding rec). Cas Nov-Feb Lord Howe I (6 recs, McAllan et al 2004). Acc Ogasawara Is, Nauru (Dec 2006-Apr 2007, Buden 2008).

C. hybrida Whiskered Tern

NOTE: Use of hybrida instead of hybridus is discussed by David and Gosselin (2002a,b); hybrida is a masculine noun, not an adjective, and is thus invariable.
C. h. javanicus Cas Solomon Is (Bougainville, Hadden 2004a), NZ (5 records: Mar and May-Oct NI; Dec SI, Crossland 2011). Acc Dec Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004). C. h. subsp? Vis Palau (first rec 1993, now a few each year Oct-Apr, Pratt and Etpison 2008, Pratt et al 2010), Mariana Is (Aug-May, eBird, Guam, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Oct-Apr Yap Wiles et al 2000, Pratt et al 2010); Pohnpei Apr 2007 Pratt et al 2010; Kosrae one rec Jun, Hayes et al 2016), Palau (Feb 1993, Wiles et al 2000; Feb 2002, 3 Koror Harbor, S. Smith), New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Apr-May 2000, Bachy; Barre and Dutson 2000). Hypo Hawaiian Is (Sep-Nov 1995 Hawaii, this sp. or White-winged Tern, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

C. albostriatus Black-fronted Tern
Res NZ (breeds SI, vis NI, Stewart I). Acc Feb Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).

Thalasseus maximus Royal Tern
T. m. maximus Vis most Jun-Mar Galapagos Is. Hypo Hawaiian Is (Feb 2002 Maui, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

T. bengalensis Lesser Crested-Tern
T. b. torresii Acc Solomon Is (Bougainville, Dutson 2001, HANZAB).

T. bergii Greater Crested-Tern (Swift Tern)
T. b. cristatus Breeds sw Pacific n of 25S incl Ogasawara Is (Baker 1951), Palau (Helen, Fana, Ngeruangel, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (Truk, Pohnpei, ?Yap), Marshall Is (Taongi, Bikar, Taka, Arno, Eniwetok, Bikini, Ailinginae, Jaluit, Amerson 1969), Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa, Amerson 1969; Line Is), Solomon Is (not listed as breeder Green Is or Nuguria, Tarburton 2006, or elsewhere, Dutson 2011), ?Vanuatu, New Caledonia (North and South Lagoons, vis Lifou, Barre and Dutson 2000; 1000 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002), Fiji, Tonga, Society Is (Thibault et al 1975), Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998), Tuamotu Is. Vis mostly May-Sep, but recorded year-round Mariana Is (Rota, Reichel and Glass 1991, Saipan, Guam and s of Guam, Pyle and Engbring 1985, Wiles et al 2000), Caroline Is (Kosrae Hayes et al 2016), Samoa (Upolu, Tutuila, Tarburton 2001). Cas Hawaiian Is (Oahu Oct 1988-Aug 1989, French Frigate Shoals Aug 1991, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Cook Is (Mangaia, Suwarrow, Holyoak 1980; Aitutaki, McCormack 2006), Gambier Is, Feb-Mar Norfolk I, NZ (Sep-Apr NI, Jan SI). Acc Nauru (Mar 1900 Frahnert and Buden 2008; Buden 2008), Wallis and Futuna (Jan 1986, Thibault et al 2015), Feb Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Kermadec Is (Apr Raoul, Veitch et al 2004).

T. sandvicensis Sandwich Tern
NOTE:Some recent authors eg Boyd, separate former Sandwich Tern of the Americas from Old World Sandwich Tern as Cabot's Tern (T. acuflavidus, which appears to be more closely related to Elegant Tern T. elegans than to Old World Sandwich Tern T. sandvicensis (Efe et al 2009).
Acc Hawaiian Is (Oahu Jan 1992, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

T. elegans Elegant Tern
Cas Galapagos Is (5 recs Jan-Mar, eBird). Acc Johnston I (Apr 1969, banded California May 1966, Atoll Res. Bull. 192), Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Apr 2012, Dowell), Cocos I (Montoya and Pascal 2004), Alijos Rocks Aug 2013 (eBird), Malpelo I Apr 2005 (eBird).

Sterna dougalli Roseate Tern
S. d. bangsi Breeds Solomon Is (New Georgia Is, Florida Is, Dutson 2011), New Caledonia (Grande Terre 2000-5000 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002). At sea vicinity. Cas Vanuatu (Bregulla 1992; no confirmed records, Dutson 2011). Acc Fiji (Vatuira, questioned by Watling 2001), Tonga, Tuamotu Arch (duPont 1976).

S. striata White-fronted Tern

NOTE: Birds breeding on Chatham Is and Auckland Is may be separable at the subspecies level as S. s. aucklandorna (OSNZ 2010).
Res 12-15,000 prs (Taylor 2000) NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is (where most depart in winter, prob to NZ or Australia, Aikman and Miskelly 2004), Auckland Is. At sea (juvs) Tasman Sea. Cas Feb-May Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001), Nov-Jan Campbell I. Acc "austral winter" Norfolk I, Feb Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Macquarie I (Oliver 1955).

S. sumatrana Black-naped Tern
S. s. sumatrana Breeds sw Pacific incl Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei), Marshall Is (Taka, Erikub, Arno, Eniwetok, Ujae, Jaluit, Amerson 1969; Ebon, Spennemann and Benjamin 2004), Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Makin, Tarawa, Onotoa, Amerson 1969; vis Line Is); ?Solomon Is, New Caledonia (4 small colonies North and South Lagoons, rare Lifou, Barre and Dutson 2000; 500 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002), ?Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Fiji, Wallis and Futuna (<30 prs, Thibault et al 2015), Tonga, Cook Is (Penrhyn, Manihiki, Suwarrow), Samoa (Upolu 1-5 prs, Tarburton 2001), Tokelau Is, Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Tubuai Is. Cas Mariana Is (Guam, hypo Rota and Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991). Acc Apr Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), American Samoa (Rose Atoll 1923, Swain's I 1967, Tutuila 2013, Jones 2014). Hypo Nauru (Buden 2008). Records (3 old specimens) for Hawaiian Is have been re-identified as immature Common Terns (Pyle and Pyle 2009).

S. hirundo Common Tern
S. h. longipennis Vis Oct-Apr (first summer inds often winter) Mariana Is (Guam, Saipan, hypo Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei- 2 recs, Pratt et al 2010); Solomon Is (Hadden 2004b, Tarburton 2006, Dutson 2011). Cas Palau (3 recs Sep-Oct, Pratt et al 2010), Marshall Is (Amerson 1969), Hawaiian Is (NW Is, of 4 reports, both confirmed are this subsp, Pyle and Pyle 2009), New Caledonia, Vanuatu, ?Fiji, Dec-Feb Lord Howe I (3 recs, McAllan et al 2004), NZ (Nov-Apr NI and SI).
S. h. hirundo Vis Oct-Apr Galapagos Is. Cas Clipperton I, Hawaiian Is (SE Is; one O'ahu 2-25 April 1961 was banded as a chick in Michigan Jun 1960, Pyle and Pyle 2009, Pyle 2002), Cook Is (Aitutaki: banded as nestling Canada, Holyoak 1980).

S. vittata Antarctic Tern

NOTE: The population at Macquarie I is sometimes separated as S. v. macquariensis.
S. v. bethunei Breeds total pop 1000 prs NZ (Stewart I), Snares Is 65-70 prs (alt plumage Jul-Mar, Miskelly et al 2001; Sagar et al 2003), Auckland Is, Bounty I, Antipodes Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I 24+ prs (Schulz and Gales 2004). At sea vicinity. Acc Chatham Is (Bell and Bell 2002).

S. paradisaea Arctic Tern
At sea e Pacific w to Hawaiian Is Apr-May (only 3 fall records, Oct Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Kiribati (Phoenix Is) Aug-Oct and Mar-Apr; Oct-Mar (immatures winter) s Pacific n to 35S: Oct-Jun, most Nov, NZ (one banded Jun Uppsala, Sweden, beached Oct 2003 Stewart I; another fitted with geolocator in Netherlands 2011 was in NZ waters during 2012, Fijn et al 2013), Chatham Is (OSNZ 2010), Nov-Jan Snares Is, Auckland Is (OSNZ 2010), ?Campbell I (reports poss Arctic Terns, OSNZ 2010), Nov Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002). Acc Solomon Is (Bougainville, Dutson 2011), Apr Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Apr Macquarie I. A record for Marshall Is (Enewetak) is unsubstantiated (Pyle and Engbring 1985).