STERNIDAE (29 species)

This family is sometimes included in Laridae. Recent genetic studies (Bridge et al 2005) showed that the genus Sterna was paraphyletic. The names of the taxa below reflect the generic names re-erected for the separate clades, as well as the new sequence of genera.

Anous stolidus Brown Noddy
A. s. pileatus Breeds Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Hawaiian Is (nw Is 75,000 prs, SE Is 40,000 prs, Pyle and Pyle 2009; 500,000 inds), Mariana Is (except Medinilla, Saragan, Alamagan, Asuncion, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is, Marshall Is (Spennemann and Benjamin 2004), Nauru (3000 inds, Buden 2008), Kiribati (Gilbert Is; throughout, Amerson 1969, Phoenix Is, Line Is), Society Is (present Sep-Mar), Solomon Is (incl Nuguria: Namotu, Takuu, Nukumanu, Hadden 2004b, but not Green Is, Tarburton 2006), New Caledonia (North and South Lagoons, Matthew, Hunter, Walpole, Chesterfields, Surprise, Barre and Dutson 2000; 1000 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002), Vanuatu (breeding not confirmed, Dutson 2011), Norfolk I (100-1000 prs, Priddel et al 2010), Lord Howe I 1000+ prs (McAllan et al 2004), Kermadec Is (Curtis I: 25 prs first noted 1989, Veitch et al 2004), Fiji, Wallis and Futuna (1500-2500 prs, Thibault et al 2015), Samoa (Tutuila, Manua Is,Rose Atoll- Watling 2001, Upolu beginning 1991, Parrish and Sherley 2012), Tuvalu, Tokelau Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Cook Is (Holyoak 1980), Gambier Is 150-242 prs, Pitcairn Is. Cas s Izu Is. Acc NZ (2 records Jun NI, OSNZ 2010). Eggs Lord Howe I Oct-Jan (Hutton 1991), Norfolk I Jan-Feb (Priddel et al 2010). At sea vicinity of breeding locations and intervening ocean.
A. s. ridgwayi Breeds Revillagigedo Is (Roca Partida, Socorro: Roca Oneal), Cocos I (breeds? Montoya 2003), Clipperton I, Easter I, Sala y Gomez Is, Desventurada Is (San Ambrosio I, San Felix I).
A. s. galapagensis Breeds Galapagos Is ("few thousand pairs", Swash and Still 2005). At sea year round in vicinity.

A. minutus Black Noddy

NOTE: Sometimes considered conspecific with A. tenuirostris of the Indian Ocean.
A. m. minutus Breeds From Solomon Is (incl Nuguria- Namotu, Takuu, Nukumanu, Hadden 2004b, but not Green Is, Tarburton 2006) and New Caledonia (>60,000 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnlle 2002, Chesterfields, Surprise, Walpole, Lifou, Barre and Dutson 2000) east to Kiribati (Gilbert Is, Amerson 1969; Line Is, Phoenix Is), Wallis and Futuna (1000 prs, Thibault et al 2015), Cook Is (Penrhyn 000s, Rakahanga 000s, Manihiki 000s, Pukapuka 000s, Suwarrow, Takutea, Holyoak 1980), Tuamotu Is, Gambier Is <50 prs, and s to Lord Howe I 200 prs (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I 100-1000 prs (Priddel et al 2010), Kermadec Is (1000 prs Herald Is, 50 prs Macauley, 40 prs Curtis, Veitch et al 2004). Does not breed Niue or Samoa (Watling 2001), but seen Savaii Aug (Reed 1980), and bred Tutuila, Tau, Rose I, Swains I before 1982 (Tarburton 2001). At sea vicinity, but apparent non-breeding ads and imms banded Fiji recovered Solomon Is (Watling 2001). Cas Vanuatu, Pitcairn Is (Henderson I, Bourne and David 1983), NZ (Aug-May NI and SI). Eggs Dec-Jan Norfolk I, Oct and Feb-Mar Lord Howe I (2 laying periods, Hutton 1991, McAllan et al 2004), Aug-Jan Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004).
A. m. marcusi Breeds Marcus I (=Minamitorishima), nw Hawaiian Is (15,000 prs French Frigate Shoals to Wake I, Pyle and Pyle 2009) to Mariana Is (Guam-Cocos I, Aguigan, Tinian, Medinilla, Guguan, Pagan, Maug, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is, Marshall Is (throughout, Amerson 1969), Johnston I, Wake I (Pyle and Pyle 2009), Nauru (likely this subsp- 15 of 31 recoveries from nw. Hawaiian Is, Buden 2008). Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. At sea vicinity.
A. m. melanogenys This taxon may differ at the species level from the previous two; marcusi and minutus breed in trees, while melanogenys breeds in rocky areas (Pyle and Pyle 2009). According to Lindsay Young 2008: "We also noticed that both sup species of Black noddy appear to be breeding on Lehua. Fledglings had both dark and orange legs with many variations in between. There were many orange legged adults, but I wasn't 100% sure that we saw a dark legged adult." Doug Pratt commented (Hawaiibirding 2009): "Lindsay Young has found possible examples of marcusi mixed in with melanogenys on Lehua Islet, but whether the 2 forms have ever nested on the same island (i. e. sympatrically) is not known, and Lehua offers very few trees for marcusi. The problem is complicated by the maturational sequence of Black Noddies. First-year birds of melanogenys have dark feet, which change gradually to orange as they age. These birds would look like marcusi EXCEPT that they have dark tails and sharply defined white caps (unlike the adults with pale gray tails and caps that fade gradually into the dark nape) that enable the observer to identify them as juveniles. So identifying dark-legged birds requires a combination of leg color, tail color, and cap configuration."
Breeds Hawaiian Is 90,000 inds (Hawaii to Kauai, 2000 prs Pyle and Pyle 2009). At sea vicinity.
A. m. diamesus Breeds Clipperton I, Cocos I (3000 pairs, Montoya 2008a). At sea vicinity.

Procelsterna cerulea Blue-Gray Noddy

NOTE: Subspecies are poorly-defined; often treated as only two subspecies, cerulea and albivitta. Some authors consider these separate species, first 5 subsp below in P. cerulea Blue Noddy and remainder in P. albivitta Gray Noddy. However murphyi has characters intermediate between cerulea and albivitta (Thibault and Bretagnolle 1999).
P. c. saxatilis Breeds Marcus I (=Minamitorishima), nw Hawaiian Is (3000-4000 prs, 1 recent rec SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009, 16,000 inds), Marshall Is (Taongi, Bikar, Pratt et al 1987; Pyle and Engbring 1985), Johnston Atoll (Pyle and Pyle 2009). At sea vicinity. Acc (this subsp?) Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima).
P. c. cerulea Breeds Kiribati except Phoenix Is. At sea vicinity.
P. c. nebouxi Breeds Kiribati (Phoenix Is), Tuvalu, Samoa (Namua, Tutuila, Aunuu, Manua; Nuutele, Nuuloa, McAllan and Hobcroft 2005, but Parrish and Sherley 2012 "very few inhabit the [Aleipata] islands"), Cook Is (Penrhyn, ?Mangaia, Holyoak 1980). At sea vicinity. Cas Aug Fiji (Watling 2001), Tonga (this subsp? Tafahi, Watling 2001).
P. c. teretirostris Breeds Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Arch except Gambier Is, Society Is. At sea vicinity. Eggs Sep-Oct Marquesas Is (Tahuata, Chester et al 1998).
P. c. murphyi Breeds Gambier Is 60-123 prs. At sea vicinity.
P. c. albivitta Breeds New Caledonia (Matthew, Hunter, Walpole, Barre and Dutson 2000), Lord Howe I <1000 prs (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I (Phillip and Nepean Is c1000 prs, Priddel et al 2010), Kermadec Is (10,000 prs Macauley, 5000+ prs Herald Is, 5000 prs Curtis, <1500 prs L'Esperance, 1000 prs Cheeseman, <100 prsRaoul, Veitch et al 2004), Tonga (Eua, Ata), NZ (ne NI: Three Kings Is, White I, Poor Knights Is, Mokohinau Is Aldermen Is, OSNZ 2010; acc Apr SI). At sea vicinity. Eggs Oct-Dec Norfolk I, Sep-Oct Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991), Aug-Sep Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004).
P. c. skottsbergii Breeds Pitcairn Is (Henderson I, Pitcairn I), Easter I. At sea vicinity.
P. c. imitatrix Breeds Desventurada Is (San Ambrosio I, San Felix I), Sala-y-Gomez I. At sea vicinity.

Gygis candida Pacific White-Tern

NOTE: Olson (2005), noting treatment by AOU (1998), supported species status for G. candida and G. microrhyncha; differences between them were noted by Wingate and Watson (1974). The first 4 subspecies below considered to vary only clinally and combined as candida by Holyoak and Thibault (in HANZAB).
G. c. rothschildi Breeds Hawaiian Is (25,000 prs nw islands, Pyle and Pyle 2009, 80,000 inds; Niihau: Kaula Rock; Oahu 250 prs, Olson 2005).
G. c. pacifica Breeds Polynesia e to Easter I, Clipperton I, Cocos I (absent Oct-Jan, Dean and Montoya 2005), Desventurada Is (Sala y Gomez Is), including Tonga (Niuafoou, Rinke 1986), Wallis and Futuna (approx 750 prs, Thibault et al 2015), Samoa (Savaii, Upolu, Tutuila, Tarburton 2001, Muse and Muse 1982), Cook Is (Holyoak 1980), Marquesas Is (Hatutu), Tuamotu Arch, Gambier Is <600 prs, but excluding Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), and Marquesas Is (Eiao to Fatu Hiva). Acc Revillagigedo Is (Jul Socorro: Roca Oneal, Brattstrom and Howell 1956), Galapagos Is (Genovesa, at sea to sw).
G. c. candida Breeds Mariana Is (Guam, Rota, Tinian, Saipan, Medinilla, Guguan, Maug, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is, Marshall Is (Amerson 1969, Spennemann and Benjamin 2004), Kiribati (this taxon? Gilbert Is: Makin, Kuria, Onotoa, Amerson 1969), Wake I, Nauru (1000-2000 ads, Buden 2008), Solomon Is (Nuguria, Tulun, Takuu, Nukumanu, Hadden 2004a, 2004b; Temotu, Dutson 2011), New Caledonia (Walpole 20-80 prs, Chesterfields, ?Hunter, ?Matthew, Barre and Dutson 2000), Fiji (Rotuma, Vatulele, Vatoa, noilau). Vis Iwo Is, Ogasawara Is, Solomon Is (other than breeding sites) and Santa Cruz Is, Vanuatu.
G. c. royana May vary only clinally from G. a. candida. Breeds Norfolk I 2000-2500 prs, Lord Howe I 60-100 prs, Kermadec Is (<10 prs Raoul I, Veitch et al 2004). Usually absent Lord Howe I Jun-Sep (McAllan et al 2004). Cas NZ (10 records Apr-Jul NI, 3 records Jan-Mar SI, OSNZ 2010). Eggs Oct-Apr Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991), Oct-Jan Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004).
G. c. leucopes Breeds Pitcairn Is (Ducie I, Henderson I, Bourne and David 1983).

G. microrhyncha Little White-Tern

NOTE: Considered conspecific with G. candida by some authors based on limited intergradation in Marquesas Is, although differences in bill coloration may provide an isolating mechanism (Wingate and Watson 1974); size difference is marked (Olson 2005, Wingate and Watson 1974). This may be a relict population of a formerly widespread species now being genetically swamped by G. candida (see Olson 2005).
Breeds Kiribati (now extirpated? Phoenix Is, Line Is), Marquesas Is (Eiao to Fatu Hiva). Acc Hawaiian Is (Apr 1924 Oahu, Olson 2005).

Onychoprion fuscata Sooty Tern
O. f. oahuensis Breeds Ogasawara Is (Nishinoshima; these birds sometimes included in nubilosa), Mariana Is (Agiguan, Guguan, Uracas, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau (Helen I, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (Truk, Pohnpei, Yap, ?Kosrae), Marshall Is 98,550 inds (Taongi, Bikar, Taka, Eniwetok, Ujalong, Ailinginae, Jaluit, Amerson 1969); Marcus I (=Minamitorishima), Wake I (1,750,000 inds, King 1974), Hawaiian Is (Kure to Manana) 1,500,000 prs, 8,000,000 inds; Johnston Atoll 600,000 inds (King 1974); Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Kuria, Nonouti, Amerson 1969, Phoenix Is 1,000,000 prs, Line Is 10,000,000 prs). Vis Iwo Is. Acc Nauru (one banded Jarvis I, Kiribati, recovered 1973, Buden 2008). At sea vicinity, imms dispersive, but recoveries suggest allopatry of breeding and non-breeding ranges of oahuensis and serrata (King 1974). Banding shows Hawaiian breeders to sw. Nov-Jan (Pyle and Pyle 2009). Most reports westward as far as Japan and Philippines apparently storm-driven (King 1974).
O. f. serrata Breeds Solomon Is (but not Bougainville area, Hadden 2004a, or Green Is and Nuguria, Tarburton 2006), New Caledonia (Surprise, Matthew, Chesterfields, Southern Lagoon islets, Barre and Dutson 2000; 200-300 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002), Fiji, Tonga, Cook Is (Penrhyn 100-10,000 prs, Suwarrow 100,000-10,000,000 prs, extirp Palmerston, Holyoak 1980), Samoa (Rose I 300,000 inds, Tarburton 2001), Marquesas Is 1,000,000 prs, Society Is, Tubuai Is, Tuamotu Arch. At sea vicinity, incl Vanuatu (Dutson 2011), but imms dispersive and non-breeders pelagic.
O. f. kermadeci (included in serrata by HANZAB and OSNZ 2010) Breeds Norfolk I (Philip and Nepean Is 1000-10,000 prs, Priddel et al 2010), Lord Howe I 1,000,000 prs, Kermadec Is (10,000 prs Macauley,<10,000 prs Herald, 5500 prs Curtis, 5000+ Cheeseman, <5000 Raoul, Veitch et al 2004). Cas NZ (possibly annual after storms, OSNZ 2010; Feb and Jun NI, Feb and Sep SI). At sea vicinity but imms dispersive and non-breeders pelagic. Birds banded Lord Howe I recovered mid-Pacific and near Philippine Is (Hutton 1991) and one banded as a chick Kermadec Is recovered as breeding adult on Seychelles (Veitch et al 2004). Absent Kermadecs Jun-Aug (Veitch et al 2004). Eggs Aug-Dec Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I, Oct-Dec Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004).
O. f. crissalis Breeds Revillagigedo Is (Roca Partida, Socorro: Roca Oneal), Cocos I (breeds? Montoya 2003, 2008a), Clipperton I, Galapagos Is (Culpepper), Sala y Gomez Is, Desventurada Is (San Felix I), Easter I. At sea vicinity, imms dispersive.
O. f. luctuosa Breeds Juan Fernandez Is. At sea vicinity.

O. lunata Grey-backed Tern
Breeds c Pacific from Hawaiian Is 200,000 inds, absent Nov-Jan (NW Is 43,000 prs, Pyle and Pyle 2009; Oahu: Moko Manu 10-30 prs, Kaula 550 prs, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Mariana Is (Guguan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Johnston I, Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), Tonga (Nomuka), Samoa (Rose I, Tutuila, Aunuu, Tarburton 2001), Society Is, Tuamotu Is. Extirp Tuvalu, Tokelau Is (Watling 2001). Vis Mariana Is (Tinian, Alamagan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Wake I, Marshall Is (breeding not known either location, Wiles et al 2000, Wiles 2005), Caroline Is (Yap, Pyle and Engbring 1985, Wiles 2005; Chuuk, Buden 2006). Cas Solomon Is (not known to breed, Hadden 2004a, Penhallurick 2003; 14 in Solomon Sea Aug, M. Carter), Fiji (not currently breeding, Watling 2001), Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998), Easter I. Acc Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima), Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008), Aug Clipperton I, NZ (2 records NI Jan-Feb, OSNZ 2010).

O. anaethetus Bridled Tern
O. a. anaethetus Breeds Palau, Solomon Is (not listed as breeding Green Is, Tarburton 2006), New Caledonia (Doughty et al 1999; uncommon breeder Southern Lagoon, Barre and Dutson 2000; 500-1000 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002), Fiji (Watling 2001), Samoa (Upolu 130 inds, Savaii 82 inds, Tarburton 2001), Tonga (Tongatapu, Vavau, Watling 2001), Wallis and Futuna (Uvea, Watling 2001; <10 prs 2014, Thibault et al 2015). At sea vicinity, incl Vanuatu (Dutson 2011), and north to Iwo Is (Watling 2001, Muse and Muse 1982). Acc Marshall Is (Bikar, Pratt et al 1987), NZ (Nov SI).
O. a. nelsoni At sea off Mexico Mar-Aug and Sep-Feb, poss further south?

O. aleutica Aleutian Tern
At sea Oct-Apr nc and nw Pacific s to 45N.

Sternula albifrons Little Tern
S. a. sinensis Res Solomon Is (Bougainville, ?Isabel, Dutson 2011), Mariana Is (Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991, Pyle et al 2001), Hawaiian Is (NW Is only confirmed records, present yearly May-Sep since 1980, at least 3 breeding records, most appear to be this subsp, but 2 specimens Jun and Sep French Frigate Shoals S. a. pusilla, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Vis Oct-Apr Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is (Guam, Rota, Reichel and Glass 1991), Oct-Apr Palau, Caroline Is (Wiles et al 2000; Pohnpei, McKinlay pers. comm.), Marshall Is (Majuro, McKinlay pers. comm.); Johnston Atoll (Pyle and Pyle 2009); Feb-May, obs in nuptial plumage, but prob occurs Oct-May New Caledonia (Barre and Bachy 2003); Vanuatu (Malekula, Efate, Dutson 2011), Oct-Dec and Feb-Mar Lord Howe I (4 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Oct-Nov Kermadec Is (2 records, Veitch et al 2004), Oct-Apr NZ (these birds visitors from northern hemisphere [chick banded at nest near Tokyo Jun 99 rec Miranda; one banded Jun 2001 in Chiva Region of Japan recovered Firth of Thames Jan 2002], although one recovery in NZ of imm banded in Vic, Austr; this prob an aberrant event- C. Minton, pers comm., but T. Habraken believes birds from both sources occur in NZ. Two ads full breeding plumage NI Jan 2001 suggestive of Aust origin, D. Lawrie). Acc Fiji (Lakemba), Samoa (Upolu), (this sp or S. albifrons) Norfolk I Nov 1975 (HANZAB), Dec-Feb Chatham Is (Bell and Bell 2002).

S. antillarum Least Tern
S. a. browni or mexicana? Cas Hawaiian Is (few confirmed records NW Is: Midway unsuccessful nest 1999, Pyle et al 2001; possible breeding attempt French Frigate 1991, Pyle and Pyle 2009; occurs regulary Mar-Nov SE Is, where 28 confirmed records of Sternula terns were Least, none Little, 4 breeding records Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

S. nereis Fairy Tern
S. n. exsul Res New Caledonia (rare, possibly declining, a few dozen prs Southern Lagoon and Chesterfields, Barre and Dutson 2000; <10 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002; 65-200 prs most in Northern Lagoon 2006-2008, Dutson 2011).
S. n. davisae Res NZ (NI 10-12 prs, 40 inds; extirp SI, OSNZ 2010).
S. n. subsp. Nesting (4 birds; poss exsul), East Diamond Islet, Coral Sea, Dec 2006 (Mustoe). May be nesting Samoa (Upolu: incr sightings there recent years, Watling 2001, Tarburton 2001). Acc ?Fiji; Norfolk I Nov 1975 (this sp or S. nereis, HANZAB).

Gelochelidon nilotica Gull-billed Tern
G. n. macrotarsa Cas NZ (this subsp? NI, SI).
G. n. affinis? Acc Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Jan-Jun 1998, prob same bird, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Mariana Is (Nov Guam, Wiles et al 2000). Hypo fall Saipan, Pratt et al 1987, Reichel and Glass 1991), Solomon Is (Russell Is Jul, Dutson 2001, Guadalcanal, Dutson 2011 ), Jan-Feb Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).

Hydroprogne caspia Caspian Tern
H. c. strenua? Res NZ 3000 inds (NI, SI). Cas Hawaiian Is (SE Is only, most Sep-Jun, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Dec and Feb Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006). Acc Jan Kermadec Is, Sep-Nov Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004).

Chlidonias niger Black Tern

NOTE: Establishment of Chlidonias as masculine is discussed by David and Gosselin (2002b).
C. n. surinamensis Cas Hawaiian Is (most Sep-Jun, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Clipperton I, Galapagos Is.

C. leucopterus White-winged Tern
Vis mostly Sep-May Mariana Is (Guam, Tinian, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau, Caroline Is (Yap- Clements 2003; Pohnpei 1 rec Apr, Pratt et al 2010), Solomon Is (Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Rennell: acc L Tenggano), New Caledonia (Dutson 2011), Norfolk I, NZ (NI, SI, one breeding rec). Cas Nov-Feb Lord Howe I (6 recs, McAllan et al 2004). Acc Ogasawara Is, Nauru (Dec 2006-Apr 2007, Buden 2008).

C. albostriatus Black-fronted Tern
Res NZ (breeds SI, vis NI, Stewart I). Acc Feb Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).

C. hybrida Whiskered Tern

NOTE: Use of hybrida instead of hybridus is discussed by David and Gosselin (2002a,b); hybrida is a masculine noun, not an adjective, and is thus invariable.
C. h. javanicus Cas Solomon Is (Bougainville, Hadden 2004a), NZ (5 records: Mar and May-Oct NI; Dec SI, Crossland 2011). Acc Dec Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004). C. h. subsp? Vis Palau (first rec 1993, now a few each year Oct-Apr, Pratt and Etpison 2008, Pratt et al 2010). Cas Mariana Is (Guam, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Oct-Apr Yap Wiles et al 2000, Pratt et al 2010); Pohnpei Apr 2007 Pratt et al 2010), Palau (Feb 1993, Wiles et al 2000; Feb 2002, 3 Koror Harbor, S. Smith), New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Apr-May 2000, Bachy; Barre and Dutson 2000). Hypo Hawaiian Is (Sep-Nov 1995 Hawaii, this sp. or White-winged Black Tern, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Sterna dougalli Roseate Tern
S. d. bangsi Breeds Solomon Is (New Georgia Is, Florida Is, Dutson 2011), New Caledonia (Grande Terre 2000-5000 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002). At sea vicinity. Cas Vanuatu (Bregulla 1992; no confirmed records, Dutson 2011). Acc Fiji (Vatuira, questioned by Watling 2001), Tonga, Tuamotu Arch (duPont 1976).

S. hirundo Common Tern
S. h. longipennis Vis Oct-Apr (first summer inds often winter) Mariana Is (Guam, Saipan, hypo Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei- 2 recs, Pratt et al 2010); Solomon Is (Hadden 2004b, Tarburton 2006, Dutson 2011). Cas Palau (3 recs Sep-Oct, Pratt et al 2010), Marshall Is (Amerson 1969), Hawaiian Is (NW Is, of 4 reports, both confirmed are this subsp, Pyle and Pyle 2009), New Caledonia, Vanuatu, ?Fiji, Dec-Feb Lord Howe I (3 recs, McAllan et al 2004), NZ (Nov-Apr NI and SI).
S. h. hirundo Vis Oct-Apr Galapagos Is. Cas Clipperton I, Hawaiian Is (SE Is; one O'ahu 2-25 April 1961 was banded as a chick in Michigan Jun 1960, Pyle and Pyle 2009, Pyle 2002), Cook Is (Aitutaki: banded as nestling Canada, Holyoak 1980).

S. paradisaea Arctic Tern
At sea e Pacific w to Hawaiian Is Apr-May (only 3 fall records, Oct Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Kiribati (Phoenix Is) Aug-Oct and Mar-Apr; Oct-Mar (immatures winter) s Pacific n to 35S: Oct-Jun, most Nov, NZ (one banded Jun Uppsala, Sweden, beached Oct 2003 Stewart I; another fitted with geolocator in Netherlands 2011 was in NZ waters during 2012, Fijn et al 2013), Chatham Is (OSNZ 2010), Nov-Jan Snares Is, Auckland Is (OSNZ 2010), ?Campbell I (reports poss Arctic Terns, OSNZ 2010), Nov Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002). Acc Solomon Is (Bougainville, Dutson 2011), Apr Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Apr Macquarie I. A record for Marshall Is (Enewetak) is unsubstantiated (Pyle and Engbring 1985).

S. vittata Antarctic Tern

NOTE: The population at Macquarie I is sometimes separated as S. v. macquariensis.
S. v. bethunei Breeds total pop 1000 prs NZ (Stewart I), Snares Is 65-70 prs (alt plumage Jul-Mar, Miskelly et al 2001; Sagar et al 2003), Auckland Is, Bounty I, Antipodes Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I 24+ prs (Schulz and Gales 2004). At sea vicinity. Acc Chatham Is (Bell and Bell 2002).

S. striata White-fronted Tern

NOTE: Birds breeding on Chatham Is and Auckland Is may be separable at the subspecies level as S. s. aucklandorna (OSNZ 2010).
Res 12-15,000 prs (Taylor 2000) NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is (where most depart in winter, prob to NZ or Australia, Aikman and Miskelly 2004), Auckland Is. At sea (juvs) Tasman Sea. Cas Feb-May Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001), Nov-Jan Campbell I. Acc "austral winter" Norfolk I, Feb Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Macquarie I (Oliver 1955).

S. sumatrana Black-naped Tern
S. s. sumatrana Breeds sw Pacific incl Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei), Marshall Is (Taka, Erikub, Arno, Eniwetok, Ujae, Jaluit, Amerson 1969; Ebon, Spennemann and Benjamin 2004), Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Makin, Tarawa, Onotoa, Amerson 1969; vis Line Is); ?Solomon Is, New Caledonia (4 small colonies North and South Lagoons, rare Lifou, Barre and Dutson 2000; 500 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002), ?Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Fiji, Wallis and Futuna (<30 prs, Thibault et al 2015), Tonga, Cook Is (Penrhyn, Manihiki, Suwarrow), Samoa (Upolu 1-5 prs, Tarburton 2001), Tokelau Is, Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Tubuai Is. Cas Mariana Is (Guam, hypo Rota and Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991). Acc Apr Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), American Samoa (Rose Atoll 1923, Swain's I 1967, Tutuila 2013, Jones 2014). Hypo Nauru (Buden 2008). Records (3 old specimens) for Hawaiian Is have been re-identified as immature Common Terns (Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Thalasseus maxima Royal Tern
T. m. maxima Cas Jun-Mar (Jan-Mar, Swash and Still 2005) Galapagos Is. Hypo Hawaiian Is (Feb 2002 Maui, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

T. bengalensis Lesser Crested-Tern
T. b. torresii Acc Solomon Is (Bougainville, Dutson 2001, HANZAB).

T. bergii Great Crested-Tern (Swift Tern)
T. b. cristatus Breeds sw Pacific n of 25S incl Ogasawara Is (Baker 1951), Palau (Helen, Fana, Ngeruangel, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (Truk, Pohnpei, ?Yap, ?Kosrae), Marshall Is (Taongi, Bikar, Taka, Arno, Eniwetok, Bikini, Ailinginae, Jaluit, Amerson 1969), Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Tarawa, Kuria, Onotoa, Amerson 1969; Line Is), Solomon Is (not listed as breeder Green Is or Nuguria, Tarburton 2006, or elsewhere, Dutson 2011), ?Vanuatu, New Caledonia (North and South Lagoons, vis Lifou, Barre and Dutson 2000; 1000 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002), Fiji, Tonga, Society Is (Thibault et al 1975), Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998), Tuamotu Is. Vis mostly May-Sep, but recorded year-round Mariana Is (Rota, Reichel and Glass 1991, Saipan, Guam and s of Guam, Pyle and Engbring 1985, Wiles et al 2000), Samoa (Upolu, Tutuila, Tarburton 2001). Cas Hawaiian Is (Oahu Oct 1988-Aug 1989, French Frigate Shoals Aug 1991, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Cook Is (Mangaia, Suwarrow, Holyoak 1980; Aitutaki, McCormack 2006), Gambier Is, Feb-Mar Norfolk I, NZ (Sep-Apr NI, Jan SI). Acc Nauru (Mar 1900 Frahnert and Buden 2008; Buden 2008), Wallis and Futuna (Jan 1986, Thibault et al 2015), Feb Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Kermadec Is (Apr Raoul, Veitch et al 2004).

T. sandvicensis Sandwich Tern
Acc Hawaiian Is (Oahu Jan 1992, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

T. elegans Elegant Tern
Acc Johnston I (Apr 1969, banded California May 1966, Atoll Res. Bull. 192), Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Apr 2012, Dowell), Cocos I (Montoya and Pascal 2004).