STERCORARIIDAE (6 species)
Because of uncertain relationships within the Stercorariidae, current authors (IOC v7.2, Boyd, AOU 2002) now place all 6 species within Stercorarius.
Stercorarius antarctica Brown Skua
NOTE: Mitochondrial cytochrome b studies (see Olsen and Larsson 1997) indicated that n and s hemisphere Catharacta separated prior to differentiation of the latter into the 3 generally-recognized taxa, hamiltoni, antarctica, and lonnbergi. Thus it seems justified to consider n and s hemisphere populations specifically distinct; timing of breeding and molt would indicate continuing divergence between n and s hemisphere populations. It has been suggested that hamiltoni and antarctica be treated as subspecies of a species distinct from lonnbergi; the distinctive population of the Kerguelen Is (currently included in lonnbergi) may also be a discernible taxon (see Olsen and Larsson 1997).
C. a. lonnbergi Breeds NZ pop fewer than 2000 inds (SI 3 prs, Solander Is 2+ prs, Stewart I 20 prs), Chatham Is 260 inds (breeds throughout except Chatham, Aikman and Miskelly 2004), Snares Is 300+ inds (Miskelly et al 2001), Antipodes Is 50-100 prs (Tennyson et al 2002), Auckland Is 100 prs, Campbell I 100 prs, Macquarie I 550 prs. Eggs Sep-Dec. At sea Mar-Nov n to 30S, occ 26S (Jenkins, in HANZAB). Acc New Caledonia (Jul, Aug Lifou, Dutson 2011), Norfolk I.
S. chilensis Chilean Skua
At sea off S. America n to 5S (>200 miles?).
S. maccormicki South Polar Skua
At sea clockwise movement: Jan-Jun NZ area (incl Feb Campbell I, Apr off S Australia), May-Jul w Pacific incl Japan, Solomon Is, Jul (ads) and e Pacific mostly May-Jun and Sep-Oct (juvs/imms) off California (McGrath and Feenstra 2005) and Mexico, Aug-Jan NZ area (incl Aug Kermadec Is, late 1993 spec Norfolk I Moore 1999, Dec Solomon Is, Aug and Nov New Caledonia, Barre and Dutson 2000). Cas c Pacific Hawaiian Is (May-Nov, Pyle and Pyle 2009; one banded 24 February 2006 as a chick in Admiralty Bay, King George Island in the South Shetlands (62 10'S), by Wayne Trivelpiece ... "This bird has not yet been resighted at the breeding colony, which means it is still on its usual 3-5 year trip around the Pacific Ocean basin. SP skuas that fledge from our area go north after fledging and it seems whichever side of the tip of S. America they encounter, they follow the coast of Chile or Argentina northwards until they eventually reach the Arctic (AK or Greenland) 2-4 years later. We normally see young birds back at our study site between their 4th- 6th years. This is our first resight from HI and an important one as I had only ever had sightings from Coastal areas prior to this, not from such an isolated, mid-ocean island as HI."- post to HAWAIIBIRDING by Robin Baird); Marshall Is (listed as C. skua, Great Skua, but likely this sp., Spennemann and Benjamin 2004), Palau (Wiles 2005), Caroline Is (Pohnpei Wiles 2005, Kosrae Oct Hayes et al 2016), Kiribati (Line Is, Phoenix Is), Dec Tonga, Samoa, Jan Fiji. Acc (this sp?) Galapagos Is.
S. pomarinus Pomarine Jaeger
NOTE: Relationships and genetic history of this species are unresolved; see summary of hypotheses in Christidis and Boles (2008). OSNZ (2010) places this species in its own genus Coprotheres as it appears intermediate between Catharacta and Stercorarius.
At sea migrates Apr-May and Sep-Nov e and w Pacific, incl Nov Revillagigedo Is (Jehl and Parkes 1982); Sep-May sw Pacific incl Solomon Is (Dutson 2001, Hadden 2004a) incl Green Is ( "spr/aut" Tarburton 2006); Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Tasman Sea incl Norfolk I s and e to NZ (NI, fewer SI), Fiji, Hawaiian Is (Nov-Jun, most Mar and Nov, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), and off c and s South America. From Declan Troy (2004): "Transmittered 4 birds Barrow, Alaska (71°N) . All the birds remained near their nest sites into September then exploded away from Barrow. The birds dispersed widely to the extent that during much of the fall there was an individual in each quartisphere of the globe (all in the Pacific Ocean). The migration of one individual is illustrated. This bird quickly crossed into the eastern hemisphere and remained in Russian waters until reaching Japan. It loitered around eastern Japan until mid-November then proceeded rather directly south though the Solomon Islands to Australia. This individual made a U-turn around 35°S (south of Sydney) and back-tracked north off the Australian coast. The reversal in direction was thought to be a local movement rather than the start of spring migration but this will remain unknown as contact with this individual was lost in February 2007." Cas Galapagos Is (Swash and Still 2005), Nov-Dec Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006). Acc Lord Howe I (Feb 2010, Morris). Cocos I (Montoya 2008b). Hypo Caroline Is (Truk, Pyle and Engbring 1985).
S. parasiticus Parasitic Jaeger
At sea e and w Pacific usually close to coasts mostly Aug-Nov and Mar-May; Aug-May NZ n to Solomon Is (Dutson 2001; M. Carter) incl Green Is ("spr/aut" Tarburton 2006), New Caledonia (Oct-Nov, Barre and Dutson 2000), Norfolk I, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, off coast of S. America. Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Hawaiian Is (Sep-Nov and Apr, R. Pyle HIBIRDS; Jun-Nov, most Aug-Sep, 1 rec Apr, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Caroline Is (Pohnpei Wiles 2005; Kosrae Oct Hayes et al 2016). Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2008b), Antipodes I (OSNZ 2010).
S. longicaudus Long-tailed Jaeger
S. l. pallescens At sea e and wc Pacific incl Ogasawara Is and Iwo Is Aug-Nov and Mar-May (May off Japan); Sep-May off S. America, nw Pacific (HANZAB), Tasman Sea e to NZ (Sep-Apr, OSNZ 2010), incl Solomon Is (Dutson 2001, Hadden 2004a) incl Green Is ("spt/aut" Tarburton 2006), Mar and Apr Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004). Prob winters further s in s Pacific than other Stercorarius, at 40-50S, some to 70S (Shirihai 2002). Cas Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Sep Palau, Feb and Nov Fiji (one just west of Fiji Nov, Myers et al 2004), Hawaiian Is (Aug-Dec and Apr-May, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
ALCIDAE (18 species)
Cerorhinca monocerata Rhinoceros Auklet
At sea Oct-May n Pacific, se to 24N incl Guadalupe I. Cas >200 mi offshore; one was 300+ mi offshore se of Japan 27 Apr 2014 (eBird; McGrath and Feenstra 2005).
Fratercula cirrhata Tufted Puffin
At sea Oct-Mar n Pacific s. to 35N. Alt ad Jun 1999 44N 133.5W (Smith). Hawaiian Is records Midway, Laysan probably transported by albatrosses, heads only (Pyle and Pyle 2009); ?Kure I, Klavitter).
F. corniculata Horned Puffin
At sea year round n. Pacific s to 35N, more Oct-Mar. Cas Hawaiian Is (NW Is, 30+ beach wrecked Jan-Mar, a few live, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
Ptychoramphus aleuticus Cassin's Auklet
P. a. australis Res Guadalupe I. Eggs Apr-Jul. At sea s to 23N off Mexico.
P. a. aleuticus At sea Oct-Mar n Pacific generally within 200 miles of land. Hypo Hawaiian Is (Oahu May 1977, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
Aethia psittacula Parakeet Auklet
At sea Oct-Mar nw Pacific, casually to s. California Jan-Mar (McGrath and Feenstra 2005). Cas Hawaiian Is (NW Is 20+ specimens beach wrecked Jan-Mar, 1 live bird moribund, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
A. cristatella Crested Auklet
At sea Oct-Mar nw Pacific.
A. pusilla Least Auklet
At sea Oct-Mar nw Pacific.
A. pygmaea Whiskered Auklet
At sea Oct-Mar nw Pacific.
Brachyramphus perdix Long-billed Murrelet
At sea Oct-Mar n Pacific; cas >200 mi offshore?
B. marmoratus Marbled Murrelet
At sea winter Gulf of Alaska 300+ km offshore ("Birds of North America").
B. brevirostris Kittlitz's Murrelet
Acc off Oregon (93 miles, P. Pyle). Casual >200 miles offshore?
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus Guadalupe Murrelet
NOTE: This taxon and the next (scrippsi were formerly subspecies of Xantus's Murrelet, but were split based on Birt et al (2012).
Breeds Guadalupe I 2400-3500 inds. Eggs Feb-Mar. At sea Aug-Sep n to California (McGrath and Feenstra 2005). Casual >200 miles offshore?
S. scrippsi Scripps's Murrelet
At sea post-breeding n. to s. Canada and s. to Mexico (McGrath and Feenstra 2005). Casual >200 miles offshore s. California?
S. craveri Craveri's Murrelet
Cas Jul-Oct >200 miles offshore? (McGrath and Feenstra 2005)
S. antiquus Ancient Murrelet
S. a. antiquus Acc Oct-Mar Iwo Is (Iwojima), s Izu Is (Torishima), Hawaiian Is (Nov 2003 Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
S. wumizusume Japanese Murrelet
Breeds s Izu Is (Torishima). At sea vicinity. Acc Hawaiian Is (Midway Apr 1996; considered hypothetical, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
Uria aalge Common Murre
U. a. inornata At sea Oct-Mar n and nw Pacific; cas >200 mi offshore?
U. a. californica At sea Oct-Mar ne Pacific; cas >200 mi offshore?
U. lomvia Thick-billed Murre
U. l. arra At sea Oct-Mar nc Pacific; cas >200 mi offshore?
PANDIONIDAE (3 species)
Inclusion of Pandion in Accipitridae in a basal position was discussed by Christidis and Boles (2008); AOU (1998) and Dickinson (2003) placed it there also, although Boyd and IOC v7.2 retained it as a separate family. Whether Osprey consists of more than one species is equivocal; Monti et al (2015) found four clades, but Boyd, noting some unclear genetic results, treats Osprey as one species P. halieaetus. However, genetic distance between the subspecies warrants recognition as species (Christidis and Boles 2008, Wink et al 2004).
Pandion halieaetus Eurasian Osprey
Cas Oct-Mar Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Palau (Engbring 1988), Mariana Is (Guam, Saipan, Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Yap- several months to Feb, Wiles et al 2000). No evidence for suggested breeding Palau (Pyle and Engbring 1985). Extirp as breeder Mariana Is (Guam, Baker 1951). As yet unconfirmed Hawaiian Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009).
P. cristatus Eastern Osprey
NOTE: This taxon includes melvillensis (Solomon Is) and microhaliaetus (New Caledonia); leucocephalus is used by some authors for Australasian birds (eg HANZAB).
Res Solomon Is incl Nissan (Hadden 2004b), Buka, Bougainville (Hadden 2004a); New Caledonia (Grande Terre, 200 prs southern half, Barre and Dutson 2000; Loyalty Is: ?Lifou, Barre and Dutson 2000).
P. carolinensis American Osprey
Vis Hawaiian Is (Midway, French Frigate, SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Johnston Atoll (Mar-May 1999, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Jun-Jan Galapagos Is, Sep-Apr Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (incl Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Clipperton I, Cocos I (Montoya 2003).
ACCIPITRIDAE (34 species)
Boyd considered a large number of papers on this family, whose taxonomy is complex. Boyd divides the family into 10 subfamilies; his sequence is followed here.
Elanus axillaris (=notatus) Black-shouldered Kite
Hypo Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991; 2 reports, McAllan et al 2004).
Aviceda subcristata Pacific Baza
Some authors include the next two taxa with gurneyi.
A. s. proxima Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is, New Georgia Is).
A. s. robusta Res Solomon Is (Choiseul, Santa Isabel).
A. s. gurneyi Res Solomon Is (where proxima, robusta absent) except Rennell (Dutson 2011).
Aquila chrysaetos Golden Eagle
A. c. subsp? Acc Hawaiian Is (Kauai, one present 1967-84 likely a natural occurrence, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
Accipiter gularis Japanese Sparrowhawk
NOTE: Boyd noted paraphyly within his subfamiliy Accipitrinae and assigned several species usually included within Accipiter to Tachyspiza; this treatment was not followed by IOC v7.2, who do note, however, that the genus Accipiter "needs a thorough revision". A. gularis is sometimes considered conspecific with A. virgatus Besra Sparrowhawk. Reichel and Glass (1991) noted Jouanin's conclusion that the Oct 1877 Guam specimen in the Paris Museum matched neither A. virgatus nor A. gularis, but that the measurements made by Jouanin suggested either A. virgatus or A. nisus Eurasian Sparrowhawk. Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) consider reports of sparrowhawks from Izu, Ogasawara, and Iwo Is, as well as Palau, likely gularis.
A. g. gularis Cas Palau, s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.
A. fasciatus Brown Goshawk
A. f. fasciatus Res Solomon Is (Rennell, Bellona).
A. f. vigilax Res Vanuatu (Aneiteum, Tanna, Bregulla 1992, Dutson 2001; Efate, Dutson 2011), New Caledonia (Grande Terre 1950 prs, Barre and Dutson 2000, Loyalty Is). Acc (this subsp?) Sep 1978 Norfolk I. Extirp (this sp?) Norfolk I (Worthy and Holdaway 2002).
A. pulchellus Rufous-breasted Goshawk
NOTE: Some authors (eg Dickinson 2003) consider conspecific with A. novaehollandiae Grey Goshawk (Australia) and/or A. hiogaster Variable (Varied) Goshawk (Papua-New Guinea), but see Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) and Christidis and Boles (2008), who split hiogaster from novaehollandiae. Both Boyd and
IOC v7.2 recognize this split, but not the split of Solomon Is birds as pulchellus suggested by Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001).
A. p. pulchellus Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).
A. p. malaitae Res Solomon Is (Malaita).
A. p. bougainvillei Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is: Shortland and Fauro, Treasury Is: Mono).
A. p. rufoschistaceus Res Solomon Is (Santa Isabel, Choiseul, Florida Is).
A. p. rubianae Res Solomon Is (New Georgia Is except Nggatokae, Ranongga, Dutson 2011).
A. novaehollandiae Grey Goshawk
Hypo Lord Howe I (HANZAB; McAllan et al 2004).
Accipiter soloensis Chinese Goshawk
Vis Sep-Mar Mariana Is (Rota, Saipan, hypo Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Yap), Palau. Acc Hawaiian Is (Kure Sep 1991, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
A. albogularis Pied Goshawk
NOTE: Some sightings of this species questionable due to similarity with A. imitator, see below.
A. a. woodfordi Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is incl Fauro, Treasury Is (Mono), Guadalcanal, Malaita, Ulawa I, Choiseul, Florida Is, Doughty et al 1999, Mayr and Diamond 2001).
A. a. gilvus Res Solomon Is (New Georgia Is except Nggatokae).
A. a. albogularis Res Solomon Is (Makira, Ugi Is, Santa Ana, Santa Catalina).
A. a. sharpei Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is: Utupua, Vanikoro).
A. haplochrous White-bellied Goshawk
Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre 2500 prs, Barre and Dutson 2000).
A. rufitorques Fiji Goshawk
A. imitator Imitator Goshawk
NOTE: May be more numerous on Isabel than prev thought, as field separation from A. albogularis is difficult; dark specs of Accipiter from Isabel have been previously assigned to A. albogularis, but all dark and pied specs in AMNH are in fact A. imitator and no specimens of albogularis are known from Isabel (Kratter et al 2001, LeCroy et al 2001).
Res Solomon Is (Choiseul, Santa Isabel, Bougainville, Hadden 2004a, Dutson 2011)
A. gentilis Northern Goshawk
NOTE: Boyd assigns this species and the next, meyerianus, to Astur, a clade closer to Circus than to Accipiter.
A. g. fujiyamae Vis Oct-Mar Ogasawara Is (Hahajima, Nishinoshima).
A. meyerianus Meyer's Goshawk
Res Solomon Is (?Buka, Kolombangara, Vella Lavella, Nggatokae, Guadalcanal, Doughty et al 1999, Mayr and Diamond 2001, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, Dutson 2001).
A. nanus Eurasian Sparrowhawk
NOTE: Reichel and Glass (1991) noted Jouanin's conclusion that an Oct 1877 Guam specimen in the Paris Museum matched neither A. virgatus nor A. gularis, but that the measurements made by Jouanin suggested either A. virgatus or A. nisus Eurasian Sparrowhawk.
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima 2009, eBird).
A. striatus Sharp-shinned Hawk
A. s. subsp? Acc Revillagigedo Is.
Circus approximans Swamp Harrier
NOTE: Two subspecies have been proposed, gouldi of NZ and approximans of the sw Pacific (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001), but mensural differences have been considered insignificant (HANZAB).
Res Vanuatu, New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Is), Fiji, Tonga, NZ, Chatham Is, Kermadec Is (not proven breeding, Veitch et al 2004). Int Society Is. Cas Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Hornbuckle; Three Sisters Is), Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Apr-Dec Norfolk I mostly juvs from NZ (Christian 2005), Wallis and Futuna (3 recs Sep-Jan, Thibault et al 2015), Cook Is (one filmed Rarotonga May-Jun 1992 ID as aeroginosus, but likely this taxon, McCormack 2006), Snares Is, Campbell I, Auckland Is, Jun-Oct Macquarie I.
C. hudsonius Northern Harrier
NOTE: This and the next species, C. cyaneus, are considered specifically distinct by Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001).
Cas Hawaiian Is (6 recs 7 birds NW Is Oct-Jan, 20+ recs Sep-Apr SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).
C. cyaneus Hen Harrier
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).
C. spilonotus Eastern Marsh-Harrier
NOTE: This species and C. aeroginosus Western Marsh Harrier, result from a split of C. aeroginosus Marsh Harrier (Oatley et al 2015).
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Mariana Is (Oct Rota, Wiles et al 2000).
Haliastur indus Brahminy Kite
H. i. flavirostris Res Solomon Is (incl Green Is, Tarburton 2006, Feni, Nissan, Dutson 2011), but not Rennell or Temotu (Dutson 2011). Acc Vanuatu, Sep Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).
H. i. subsp? Acc Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008).
H. sphenurus Whistling Kite
Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Dutson 2011).
Milvus migrans Black Kite
M. m. lineatus? affinis? Cas Palau, Mariana Is (Wiles et al 2000; Apr-May Saipan, Kessler 1999; Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001; 3 recs of 4 birds Dec-Jun Midway, subsp. lineatus, Pyle and Pyle 2009), NZ (NI, SI, poss only 1-2 birds account for the several sightings). Acc New Caledonia (Dutson 2011)
Haliaeetus albicilla White-tailed Eagle
H. a. albicilla Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Hawaiian Is (Dec-May 2006-7 Kauai, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
H. pelagicus Steller's Sea-Eagle
NOTE: Treated as monotypic by IOC v7.2.
Cas w Hawaiian Is (Kure I and Midway I- same bird Feb-May, Nov French Frigate Shoals, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc s Izu Is (Torishima).
H. leucogaster White-bellied Eagle
NOTE: Christidis and Boles (2008), noting the small genetic distance between leucogaster and sanfordi, as well as additional evidence, combined the two as subspecies of leucogaster. However current authors (Boyd, IOC v7.2) treat them as full species, followed here. Boyd separates northern and southern sea-eagles at the generic level, noting physical differences as well as geographic separation, placing southern sea-eagles leucogaster and sanfordi in IcthyophagaThis position is not follwed by IOC v7.2 or herein.
H. l. leucogaster Res Solomon Is (Nissan, Hadden 2004a, 2004b). Vis Solomon Is (Nissan, Hadden 2004a). Acc New Caledonia (immature Lac du Yate Oct 1999; new NC rec? T. Clarke). Acc NZ (OSNZ (2010) notes a specimen in the National Museum that was thought to have been collected in NZ; Oliver (1955) indicates concern that the specimen was "really" taken in NZ).
H. sanfordi Sanford's Sea-Eagle
Res Solomon Is (except Rennell, Doughty et al 1999; ?Nissan, Hadden 2004b).
Butastur indicus Grey-faced Buzzard
Cas s Izu Is (Apr Torishima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima). Acc Mariana Is (Feb-Mar Guam, Wiles et al 2000), Caroline Is (Mar Yap, Clements 2003), Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008).
Geranoaetus exsul Juan Fernandez Hawk
NOTE: Often considered conspecific with G. polyosoma Red-backed Hawk and/or G. poecilochrous Gurney's Hawk, as subspecies of G. polyosoma Variable Hawk, but plumage differences and isolation suggest otherwise (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).
Res Juan Fernandez Is (Mas Afuera I; int Isla Robinson Crusoe (=Mas Atierra).
Buteo solitarius Hawaiian Hawk (Io)
Res 1160-2700 inds (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001) Hawaiian Is (Hawaii; reports other SE Is unconfirmed, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
B. galapagoensis Galapagos Hawk
Res 130 prs in 1970s, but currently 700-900 inds (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001) Galapagos Is (Santa Cruz few, Santiago, Isabela, Santa Fe, Espanola, Fernandina). Extirpated Floreana, San Cristobal, Seymour, Daphne, Baltra. Unrecorded Genovesa, Wenman, Culpepper.
B. jamaicensis Red-tailed Hawk
NOTE: IOC v7.2 includes socorroensis within (Preston and Beane 2009).
B. j. socorroensis Res Revillagigedos Is (Socorro I 15-20 prs). Cas Revillagigedo Is (San Benedicto, Brattstrom and Howell 1956).
B. j. subsp? Extirpated Guadalupe I (Howell and Webb 1995).
B. lagopus Rough-legged Hawk
B. l. subsp? Cas Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001;Laysan Mar-May, Sep-Nov Midway I, Nov-Mar Kahoolawe, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
B. japonicus Eastern Buzzard
NOTE: This species, with subspecies japonicus, toyoshimai, and oshiroi was split from Common Buzzard B. buteo (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Lerner et al. 2008).
B. j. toyoshimai Res southern Izu Is (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001), Ogasawara Is (Chichijima, Hahajima, smaller is). Vis Mariana Is (Anatahan, Sarigan, hypo Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991). Hypo Palau (Pyle and Engbring 1985).