TYTONIDAE (5 species)Tyto longimembris Eastern Grass Owl
STRIGIDAE (18 species)The sequence herein follows Boyd's arrangement in three subfamilies, Ninoxinae, Surniinae, and Striginae.
UPUPIDAE (1 species) BUCEROTIDAE (1 species) MEROPIDAE (1 species) CORACIIDAE (1 species) ALCEDINIDAE (30 species)
Upupa epops Hoopoe
U. e. epops (includes saturata) Acc Ogasawara Is (Hahajima), Mariana Is (Saipan Aug, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Yap Oct, Pratt et al 2010).
Rhyticeros plicatus Blyth's Hornbill
NOTE: This taxon was formerly included in Aceros. Current authors consider it monotypic (Kemp 2001, Beehler and Pratt 2016).
R. p. harterti Res Solomon Is (Nissan, Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is).
R. p. mendanae Res Solomon Is (Choiseul, Santa Isabel, Malaita, Guadalcanal, New Georgia Is, Russell Is, Mayr and Diamond 2001, Dutson 2011).
Merops ornatus Rainbow Bee-eater
Cas Solomon Is (Nissan, Hadden 2004a, 2004b). Acc Mariana Is (Saipan), Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008), Aug Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).
Eurystomus orientalis Oriental Dollarbird
E. o. cyanocollis Acc Iwo Is (Iwojima, Brazil 1991). See comment below under pacificus.
NOTE: cyanocollis has precedence over calonyx (IOC v7.2).
E. o. solomonensis Res Solomon Is incl Buka, Bougainville, but not Rennell (Dutson 2011).
E. o. pacificus Vis Aug-May Palau (this subsp. and northern subsp. calonyx probably both occur, Pratt and Etpison 2008, Pratt et al 2010), Oct-Nov and Feb-Jun Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004). Cas Caroline Is (Jul-Oct Yap Pratt et al 2010), NZ (Dec-May, NI, SI). Acc Caroline Is (Pohnpei, Mayr 1945, Pratt et al 1987), Norfolk I.
There are three distinct clades in his family, treated by some authors (Christidis and Boles 1994, Fry 1999) as families, Alcedinidae, Halcyonidae, and Cerylidae. More recently (Boyd, IOC v7.2), the three clades have been treated as subfamilies of Alcedinidae. Herein the sequence proposed by Boyd has been followed. The next 8 species are part of subfamily Alcedininae.
Alcedo atthis Common Kingfisher
A. a. hispidoides Res Solomon Is (Nissan, Dutson 2011).
A. a. salomonensis Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, e to Makira and Malaita, but not Russell Is, Florida Is, or Rennell, Dutson 2011).
A. a. bengalensis Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Mariana Is (Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991).
Ceyx pallidus Bougainville Dwarf Kingfisher
NOTE:The former Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx lepidus has been split into 15 allopatric species; "most (all?) of these are field identifiable and the genetic distance between most of them is substantial" (Boyd). This species and the following 5 occur in the Pacific Region.
Res Solomon Is (Bougainville, Buka).
C. meeki North Solomons Dwarf Kingfisher
Res Solomon Is (Choiseul, Santa Isabel).
C. collectoris New Georgia Dwarf Kingfisher
Res Solomon Is (Vella Lavella, New Georgia Is).
C. malaitae Malaita Dwarf Kingfisher
Extinct? Res Solomon Is (Malaita).
C. nigromaxilla Guadalcanal Dwarf Kingfisher
Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).
C. gentianus Makira Dwarf Kingfisher
Res Solomon Is (Makira).
C. pusillus Little Kingfisher
NOTE: Birds of unknown subspecies occur on Russell Is and Malaita (Dutson 2011).
C. p. bougainvillei Res Solomon Is (?Nissan, Tarburton 2006, Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is, Choiseul, Santa Isabel, Florida Is).
C. p. richardsi Res c Solomon Is (Vella Lavella to Tetepare).
C. p. aolae Extinct? Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).
Following is the sole representative of subfamily Cerylinae in the Pacific Region:
Megaceryle alcyon Belted Kingfisher
Vis Oct-Mar Guadelupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Galapagos Is. Cas Hawaiian Is (Sep-Apr SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Cocos I (Montoya 2008b).
The remaining species belong to the subfamily Halcyoninae. Fry and Fry (1999) included "Pacific flatbills" Todiramphus in Halcyon, a course followed by Pratt et al (1987) and Mayr and Diamond (2001). However Christidis and Boles (1994, 2008) considered Australasian species sometimes placed in Halcyon to be distinct at the generic level from African and Asian members of the genus, based on a broad range of evidence. Christidis and Boles (1994, 2008) used Todiramphus for these Australasian species, although others, while recognizing Todiramphus, have limited its use to birds of certain Pacific islands, such as T. tutus). Herein the sequence used by Boyd for Todiramphus is followed, based on Anderson et al (2015).
Dacelo novaeguineae Laughing Kookaburra
D. n. novaeguineae Int (some self-int?) NZ (NI, acc SI).
Actenoides bougainvillei Moustached Kingfisher
NOTE: Retained in Halcyon by Mayr and Diamond (2001).
A. b. bougainevillei Res Solomon Is (Bougainville).
A. b. excelsus Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).
Todiramphus macleayii Forest Kingfisher
T. m. incinctus Acc Solomon Is (Nissan, Dutson 2011, Kolombangara Aug, Dutson 2001), Oct 1996 Norfolk I (HANZAB).
T. leucopygius Ultramarine Kingfisher
Res Solomon Is (?Nissan, Tarburton 2006, Buka, Bougainville, Fauro, Choiseul, Santa Isabel, Florida Is, Guadalcanal).
T. farquhari Chestnut-bellied (Vanuatu) Kingfisher
Res Vanuatu (Espiritu Santo, Aore, Malo, Malekula, Dutson 2011).
T. pelewensis Rusty-capped Kingfisher
NOTE: Pratt and Etpison (2008) consider this species and the next two to be full species, rather than subspecies of former Micronesian Kingfisher T. cinnamominus. This position was confirmed by genetic data (Andersen et al 2015).
T. cinnamominus Guam Kingfisher
Formerly res Mariana Is (Guam, now extirp, Reichel and Glass 1991).
T. reichenbachii Pohnpei Kingfisher
Res Caroline Is (Pohnpei).
T. chloris Collared Kingfisher
NOTE: Relationships between (former) White-collared Kingfisher T. chloris, T. sanctus, and T. tutus have been debated but are unsettled. Mayr and Diamond (2001) note that T. sanctus and T. chloris are closely related and "seem to have spread in several waves". T. sanctus is generally smaller, and occupies more open habitats and smaller perches than T. chloris where they occur together in Northern Melanesia (Mayr and Diamond 2001). Pratt et al (1987) assigned the rusty-bellied taxa of Fiji and Futuna (vitiensis, eximius, and regina) to T. sanctus (contra Mayr and Diamond 2001), based on their resemblance to New Caledonia birds and vocalizations, and the eastern Fijian, Tongan, and Samoan taxa marinus, sacer, manuae and pealei to T. tutus, based on generally smaller size than other chloris taxa, and their resemblance in plumage and vocalizations to T. tutus. Fry and Fry (1999), while indicating that the assignments of Pratt et al (1987) may be correct, retained these groups of taxa in T. chloris. Recently, based on Andersen et al (2015), (former) White-collared Kingfisher T. chloris, has been split into 6 species, four of which occur in the Pacific Region. This taxon, Pacific Kingfisher, and the next three comprise the four regional species. Subspecies assignment is based on IOC v7.2.
T. c. teraokai Res Palau.
T. sacer Pacific Kingfisher
T. s. torresianus Res Vanuatu (Torres Is: Hiu, Lo, Toga).
T. s. santoensis Res Vanuatu (Espiritu Santo to Banks Is, Malo).
T. s. juliae Res Vanuatu (from Maewo, Ambae, and Aoba s to Efate).
T. s. erromangae Res Vanuatu (Erromango, Aneityum).
T. s. tannensis Res Vanuatu (Tanna).
T. s. sacer (note correct spelling, Penhallurick) Res Tonga (s islands n to Haapai Grp).
T. s. pealei
NOTE: Pratt and Mittermeir (2016) made a case for specific status of this and manuae as subspecies of Peale's Kingfisher (T. pealei.
Res Samoa (Tutuila).
T. s. manuae Res Samoa (Manua Is).
T. s. malus Res Solomon Is (Malaita).
T. s. pavuvu Res Solomon Is (Pavuvu, Mbanika).
T. s. sororum Res Solomon Is (Three Sisters Is: Malaupaina, Malaulaulo).
T. s. amoenus Res Solomon Is (Rennell, Bellona).
T. s. solomonis Res Solomon Is (Ugi Is, Makira, Santa Ana, Santa Catalina).
T. s. brachyurus Res Solomon Is (Reef Is: Fenualoa, Lomlom).
T. s. vicinus Res Solomon Is (Duff Is).
T. s. ornatus Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is: Nendo, Tinakula, Dutson 2011).
T. s. nov. subsp. Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is: Tikopia, Anuta, Mayr 1945, Dutson 2001).
T. s. utupuae Res Solomon Is (Utupua).
T. s. melanoderus Res Solomon Is (Vanikoro).
T. s. vitiensis Res Fiji (Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Lomaiviti Group: Koro, Ovalau, Ngau).
T. s. eximius Res Fiji (Kadavu, Ono, Vanua Kula).
T. s. regina Res Wallis and Futuna (Futuna, Alofi, Thibault et al 2015).
T. s. marinus Res Fiji (Lau Arch.).
T. tristrami Melanesian Kingfisher
T. t. bennetti Res Solomon Is (Nissan, ?Nukumanu, Hadden 2004b).
T. t. alberti Res Solomon Is (except Pavuvu, Malaita, Makira, Ugi Is, Santa Ana, Rennell). Birds on Ontong Java, Ndai, and Sikaiana may be this or an un-named subspecies (Dutson 2011). A sighting of 2 birds on Nauru Apr-Jul 1961 may be this taxon or T. sanctus (Buden 2008).
T. albicilla Mariana Kingfisher
T. a. owstoni Res Mariana Is (Sarigan, Alamagan, Pagan, Agrigan, Asuncion).
T. a. albicillus Res Mariana Is (Aguigan, Saipan, Tinian).
T. a. orii Res Mariana Is (Rota).
T. godeffroyi Marquesan Kingfisher
Res Marquesas Is (Hiva Oa, Tahuata, Fatu Hiva, poss extirpated Hiva Oa, Fatu Hiva).
T. ruficollaris Mangaia (Mewing) Kingfisher
Res Cook Is (Mangaia 400-700 inds).
T. veneratus Society Kingfisher
T. v. veneratus Res Society Is (Tahiti).
T. v. youngi Res Society Is (Moorea).
T. tutus Chattering Kingfisher
NOTE: Holyoak (1980) mentions a kingfisher of unknown affinities on Rarotonga until about 1940; it seems likely on geographic grounds to have been part of the T. tutus group.
T. t. tutus Res Society Is (Bora Bora, Maupiti, Raiatea, Huahine, Tahaa, Tahiti).
T. t. atiu Res Cook Is (Atiu).
T. t. mauke Res Cook Is (Mauke).
T. gambieri Gambier Kingfisher
NOTE: Fry and Fry (1999), while noting the isolation of this taxon from similar taxa, tentatively included it in T. tutus because of its resemblance to the latter. DuPont (1975) considered this a "doubtful species", questioning the Mangareva type locality and speculating that the single known specimen may have come from Micronesia.
Extinct. Res formerly Gambier Is (Mangareva).
T. gertrudae Niau Kingfisher
NOTE: Although sometimes treated with gambieri as subspecies of "Tuamotu Kingfisher", the two are separated by 1250 km with no evidence that kingfishers occurr on the scores of intervening islands (Fry and Fry 1999).
Res Tuamotu Is (Niau).
T. recurvirostris Flat-billed Kingfisher
NOTE: Sometimes considered conspecific with T. sanctus, but the rusty-bellied taxa found in Fiji (vitiensis, eximius, and regina) are much more similar to T. sanctus than is T. recurvirostris (Pratt et al 1987).
Res Samoa (Savaii, Upolu).
T. saurophagus Beach Kingfisher
NOTE:Mayr and Diamond (2001) suggest that this species and T. chloris arose in different geographic areas of Northern Melanesia and have not yet become sympatric, although there may be some introgression in the northern Bismarcks.
T. s. saurophagus Res Solomon Is e to Makira and Santa Ana, incl Green Is and Nuguria (Tarburton 2006), Takuu and Tulun (Hadden 2004b), but not Rennell (Dutson 2011).
T. sanctus Sacred Kingfisher
NOTE: Subspecies norfolkiensis and adamsi are often merged with vagans; while adamsi is indeed rather similar to vagans, and was merged with it by IOC v7.2, norfolkiensis, along with birds from Kermadec Is, is rather dissimilar (HANZAB).
T. s. sanctus Res? Solomon Is (has bred Guadalcanal, Three Sisters, other islands, Mayr and Diamond 2001). Mostly vis Mar-Sep Solomon Is from Australia (HANZAB, Hadden 2004a, 2004b) east to Makira but not Rennell or Temotu, but incl Green Is, Tulun, Takuu (Hadden 2004b), Nissan (Tarburton 2006). Vagrant (this subsp?) Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985). Hypo Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Pyle and Engbring 1985, hypo Kosrae, Hayes et al 2016).
T. s. vagans Res Kermadec Is (50 prs Raoul I, <10 prs Herald Is, Veitch et al 2004), NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I). Cas (4 recs) Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006).
T. s. norfolkiensis Res Norfolk I.
T. s. adamsi Res Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).
T. s. canacorum Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Isle of Pines).
T. s. macmillani Res New Caledonia (Loyalty Is).
BUCEROTIDAE (1 species) MEROPIDAE (1 species) CORACIIDAE (1 species) ALCEDINIDAE (30 species)
MEROPIDAE (1 species) CORACIIDAE (1 species) ALCEDINIDAE (30 species)