TYTONIDAE (5 species)

Tyto novaehollandiae Masked Owl
NOTE:T. n. castanops, the Tasmanian form, sometimes treated as full species (Sibley and Monroe 1990).
T. n. castanops Int in 1920s (10+ prs) Lord Howe I. (May have been some T. n. novaehollandiae introduced also, McAllan et al 2004; genetic studies confirm presence of genes from mainland Australia subspecies T. n. novaehollandiae, thus Lord Howe I birds are likely to be of of mixed provenance, Hogan et al 2013).

T. delicatula Eastern Barn Owl
NOTE: Recent studies (see Christidis and Boles 2008) suggest that Barn Owls of southern Asia, Australia, and the southwest Pacific are separable at the species level, as are those of the Americas; the specific epithet for the former is delicatula, rather than javanica, which is a subspecies of Old World Tyto alba (see Boyd), and for the latter furcata, which is the oldest name available (Christidis and Boles 2008).
The subspecies bellonae is not recognized by Mayr and Diamond (2001); any or all of bellonae, interposita, lifuensis, and lulu are doubtfully separable. Dutson (2011) uses crassirostris for birds endemic to Tanga, New Ireland, and includes all Solomon Is birds in delicatula.
Worthy (BIRDING-NZ) believes that Barn Owls have colonized all islands that they occupy east of the Solomons (Fiji, Niue etc) during the last 3000 years (Niue 2100 years, Samoa 1200 years), and were not there before humans came to these islands and introduced Pacific Rat (kiore). Worthy believes also that this rapid spread would be relatively unlikely if only one owl ever dispersed out side its existing range at one time so it seems likely they have a propensity to colonize in small groups.

T. d. delicatula Cas NZ (Feb-Apr and Jun-Nov NI, SI), Norfolk I (Hermes). Recently breeding NZ (NI; Hyde et al 2009). Int Lord Howe I, now prob extirpated; fresh skeleton Feb 1971, likely vagrant (Hutton 1991).
T. d. crassirostris Res Solomon Is incl Nissan, Buka, Bougainville (Hadden 2004a, 2004b), Rennell.
T. d. bellonae Res Solomon Is (Bellona).
T. d. interposita Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is: Nendo, Vanikoro), Vanuatu (s to Efate), Banks Is (Vanua Lava).
T. d. lifuensis (Included in T. j. javanica (=delicatula) by HANZAB and Barre and Dutson 2000). Res s Vanuatu (Erromango, Tanna, Aneityum), New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Is).
T. d. lulu Res Fiji, Rotuma, Wallis and Futuna (Thibault et al 2015), Tonga (incl Nuiafou, Rinke 1986), Samoa (Savaii, Upolu, Tutuila, Manua Is), Niue.

T. furcata American Barn Owl
T. f. pratincola Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc NZ (NI: remains of one in aircraft undercarriage from USA via Hawaii, HANZAB). Int Lord Howe I, now extirpated (Hutton 1991).
T. f. subsp? Cas Revillagigedo Is (Apr-May Socorro, Howell and Webb 1995; see also Jehl and Parkes 1982).

T. punctatissima Galapagos Barn Owl
NOTE: This taxon was split from T. furcata according to Konig and Weick (2008).
Res Galapagos Is 9000 inds (Swash and Still 2005).

T. longimembris (incl walleri) Eastern Grass Owl
NOTE: Often considered conspecific with T. capensis; includes oustaleti.
Acc New Caledonia (possibly only vagrant, Grande Terre, Loyalty Is: ?Lifou, Barre and Dutson 2000), Fiji (Viti Levu, possibly extirpated).



STRIGIDAE (13 species)

Pyrroglaux podargina Palau Owl
NOTE:Included until recently in Otus (see Dickinson 2003).
Res Palau (larger is incl Peleliu).

Bubo virginianus Great Horned Owl
B. v. subsp.? Int Marquesas Is (Hiva Oa).

Micrathene whitneyi Elf Owl
M. w. graysoni Extinct? Res Revillagigedo Is (Socorro I; none found there 1978 and 1981, Jehl and Parkes 1982).

Athene noctua Little Owl
A. n. vidalii? (HANZAB). Int SI.

A. cunicularia Burrowing Owl
A. c. rostrata Res Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Clarion I 850 prs, Wanless et al 2009).

Ninox boobook Southern Boobook
NOTE: Christidis and Boles (2008), in combining novaeseelandiae and boobook, pointed out that findings of Norman et al (1998) have been mis-interpreted in the literature and did not in fact provide evidence for species status of the two forms. However there is growing consensus that birds from Tasmania (leucopsis, New Zealand (novaeseelandiae), and Norfolk Island (undulata comprise a separate species (IOC Checklist; David James, post to BIRDING-AUS 18 Jun 2013), as shown below.
N. b. boobook Int, now extirp, Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).
N. b. albaria Extinct. Formerly res Lord Howe I.

N. novaeseelandiae Morepork
N. n. undulata Res Norfolk I, now only hybrids (est 40, Christian 2005) with N. n. novaeseelandiae extant.
N. n. novaeseelandiae Res NI, SI, Stewart I. Cas Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).

N. scutulata Brown Hawk-Owl
N. s. japonica Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Iwo Is (Kita-iwojima), Palau (Helen I, photo, Pratt and Etpison 2008, Pratt et al 2010), Mariana Is (Rota, Pratt et al 1987, Reichel and Glass 1991).

N. jacquinoti West Solomons Boobook
NOTE: Mayr and Diamond (2001) separate the 7 subspecies sometimes included in N. jacquinoti Solomon Islands Boobook (Hawk-Owl) into three distinctive groups: eichhorni/mono/jacquinoti/floridae; granti; and malaitae/roseoaxillaris. In addition, Dutson (2011) split the latter into separate species; these treatments are followed here.
N. j. eichhorni Res Buka, Bougainville, Solomon Is (Shortland Is, Choiseul).
N. j. mono Res Solomon Is (Mono).
N. j. jacquinoti Res Solomon Is (Santa Isabel incl San Jorge).
N. j. floridae Res Solomon Is (Florida Is).

N. granti Guadalcanal Boobook
Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).

N. malaitae Malaita Boobook
Res Solomon Is (known from only 2 specimens, Malaita).

N. roseoaxillaris Makira Boobook
Res Solomon Is (Makira, Ugi Is, Santa Catalina).

Sceloglaux albifacies Laughing Owl
S. a. rufifacies Extinct. Res formerly NI.
S. a. albifacies Extinct. Res formerly SI, Stewart I.

Asio otus Long-eared Owl
A. o. otus Acc Ogasawara Is (Apr Torishima), Iwo Is (Kita-iwojima).

A. flammeus Short-eared Owl
A. f. flammeus Cas s Izu Is (Torishima), Ogasawara Is (Hahajima), Mariana Is (Guam, Tinian, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991, Pagan, Spennemann 2004), Caroline Is (Kosrae, Yap- Pratt et al 2010), Marshall Is (Spennemann 2004), Hawaiian Is (NW Is, no confirmed records SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Wake I, Revillagigedo Is (Clarion, Socorro, Howell and Webb 1995).
A. f. ponapensis Res Caroline Is (Pohnpei 12 inds).
A. f. sandwichensis Res Hawaiian Is (SE Is, vagrant NW Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
A. f. suinda Res Juan Fernandez Is.

A. galapagoensis Galapagos Short-eared Owl
NOTE:This taxon was split from A. flammeus according to Konig and Weick (2008).
Res Galapagos Is (except Fernandina, Wenman, Culpepper) 9000 inds (Swash and Still 2005).

Nesasio grammicus Fearful Owl
Res Solomon Is (?Buka, Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Isabel, Dutson 2011).



UPUPIDAE (1 species)

Upupa epops Hoopoe
U. e. epops (includes saturata) Acc Ogasawara Is (Hahajima), Mariana Is (Saipan Aug, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Yap Oct, Pratt et al 2010).


BUCEROTIDAE (1 species)

Aceros plicatus Blyth's Hornbill
NOTE: Some authors retain Rhyticeros as the generic name.
A. c. harterti Res Solomon Is (Nissan, Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is).
A. c. mendanae Res Solomon Is (Choiseul, Santa Isabel, Malaita, Guadalcanal, New Georgia Is, Russell Is, Mayr and Diamond 2001, Dutson 2011).


MEROPIDAE (1 species)

Merops ornatus Rainbow Bee-eater
Cas Solomon Is (Nissan, Hadden 2004a, 2004b). Acc Mariana Is (Saipan), Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008), Aug Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).


CORACIIDAE (1 species)

Eurystomus orientalis Dollarbird (Eastern Broad-billed Roller)
E. o. calonyx Acc Iwo Is (Iwojima, Brazil 1991). See comment below under pacificus.
E. o. solomonensis Res Solomon Is incl Buka, Bougainville, but not Rennell (Dutson 2011).
E. o. pacificus Vis Aug-May Palau (this subsp. and northern subsp. probably both occur, Pratt and Etpison 2008, Pratt et al 2010), Oct-Nov and Feb-Jun Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004). Cas Caroline Is (Jul-Oct Yap Pratt et al 2010), NZ (Dec-May, NI, SI). Acc Caroline Is (Pohnpei, Mayr 1945, Pratt et al 1987), Norfolk I.


ALCEDINIDAE (3 species)

Distinctness of this family from Halcyonidae was discussed by Christidis and Boles (1994), who noted also that Halcyonidae has precedence over Dacelonidae. Following Fry and Fry (1999), Cerylidae has equivalent status. Some authors (eg Boyd) treat the three families as subfamilies of Halcyonidae.

Ceyx lepidus Dwarf Kingfisher
NOTE: Fry and Fry (1999) included this taxon in Alcedo "partly out of convenience", noting that it has characters of both genera. Recent studies indicate that Alcedo thus constituted is paraphyletic, and pusilla, often included in Alcedo, belongs in Ceyx (see Christidis and Boles 2008). Fry and Fry (1999) included pallidus in meeki. Mayr and Diamond (2001) considered meeki (including pallidus) quite distinct.
C. l. pallidus Res Solomon Is (Bougainville, Buka).
C. l. meeki Res Solomon Is (Choiseul, Santa Isabel).
C. l. collectoris Res Solomon Is (Vella Lavella, New Georgia Is).
C. l. malaitae Extinct? Res Solomon Is (Malaita).
C. l. nigromaxilla Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).
C. l. gentianus Res Solomon Is (Makira).

C. pusilla Mangrove (Little) Kingfisher
NOTE: Birds of unknown subspecies occur on Russell Is and Malaita (Dutson 2011).
C. p. bougainvillei Res Solomon Is (?Nissan, Tarburton 2006, Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is, Choiseul, Santa Isabel, Florida Is).
C. p. richardsi Res c Solomon Is (Vella Lavella to Tetepare).
C. p. aolae Extinct? Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).

Alcedo atthis River Kingfisher
A. a. hispidoides Res Solomon Is (Nissan, Dutson 2011).
A. a. salomonensis Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, e to Makira and Malaita, but not Russell Is, Florida Is, or Rennell, Dutson 2011).
A. a. bengalensis Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Mariana Is (Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991).


CERYLIDAE (1 species)

The sub-genus megaceryle has been raised to generic status (AOU 2007).

Megaceryle alcyon Belted Kingfisher
Vis Oct-Mar Guadelupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Galapagos Is. Cas Hawaiian Is (Sep-Apr SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Cocos I (Montoya 2008b).


HALCYONIDAE (17 species)

Fry and Fry (1999) included "Pacific flatbills" Todiramphus in Halcyon, a course followed by Pratt et al (1987) and Mayr and Diamond (2001). However Christidis and Boles (1994, 2008) considered Australasian species sometimes placed in Halcyon to be distinct at the generic level from African and Asian members of the genus, based on a broad range of evidence. Christidis and Boles (1994, 2008) used Todiramphus for these Australasian species, although others, while recognizing Todiramphus, have limited its use to birds of certain Pacific islands, such as T. tutus).

Actenoides bougainvillei Moustached Kingfisher
NOTE: Retained in Halcyon by Mayr and Diamond (2001).
A. b. bougainevillei Res Solomon Is (Bougainville).
A. b. excelsus Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).

Dacelo novaeguineae Laughing Kookaburra
D. n. novaeguineae Int (some self-int?) NZ (NI, acc SI).

Todiramphus leucopygius Ultramarine Kingfisher
NOTE: This and the next two species are included in the superspecies T. diops by Mayr and Diamond (2001).
Res Solomon Is (?Nissan, Tarburton 2006, Buka, Bougainville, Fauro, Choiseul, Santa Isabel, Florida Is, Guadalcanal).
F: Bougainville: lowland forest to about 700m, Hadden 2004a. Guadalcanal: 2 Mt Austen, 2 track Tenaroo Falls, Richards. Santa Isabel: common Garanga R, Kratter et al 2001.

T. farquhari Chestnut-bellied Kingfisher
Res Vanuatu (Espiritu Santo, Aore, Malo, Malekula, Dutson 2011).

T. macleayii Forest Kingfisher
T. m. incinctus Acc Solomon Is (Nissan, Dutson 2011, Kolombangara Aug, Dutson 2001), Oct 1996 Norfolk I (HANZAB).

T. saurophagus Beach Kingfisher
NOTE:Mayr and Diamond (2001) suggest that this species and T. chloris arose in different geographic areas of Northern Melanesia and have not yet become sympatric, although there may be some introgression in the northern Bismarcks.
T. s. saurophagus Res Solomon Is e to Makira and Santa Ana, incl Green Is and Nuguria (Tarburton 2006), Takuu and Tulun (Hadden 2004b), but not Rennell (Dutson 2011).

T. chloris White-collared Kingfisher
NOTE: Species limits between this species, T. sanctus, and T. tutus are unsettled. Mayr and Diamond (2001) note that T. sanctus and T. chloris are closely related and "seem to have spread in several waves". T. sanctus is generally smaller, and occupies more open habitats and smaller perches than T. chloris where they occur together in Northern Melanesia (Mayr and Diamond 2001). Pratt et al (1987) assigned the rusty-bellied taxa of Fiji and Futuna (vitiensis, eximius, and regina) to T. sanctus (contra Mayr and Diamond 2001), based on their resemblance to New Caledonia birds and vocalizations, and the eastern Fijian, Tongan, and Samoan taxa marinus, sacer, manuae and pealei to T. tutus, based on generally smaller size than other chloris taxa, and their resemblance in plumage and vocalizations to T. tutus. Fry and Fry (1999), while indicating that the assignments of Pratt et al (1987) may be correct, retained these groups of taxa in T. chloris. A sighting of 2 birds on Nauru Apr-Jul 1961 may be this taxon or T. sanctus (Buden 2008).
T. c. teraokai Res Palau.
T. c. owstoni Res Mariana Is (Sarigan, Alamagan, Pagan, Agrigan, Asuncion).
T. c. albicillus Res Mariana Is (Aguigan, Saipan, Tinian).
T. c. orii Res Mariana Is (Rota).
T. c. bennetti Res Solomon Is (Nissan, ?Nukumanu, Hadden 2004b).
T. c. alberti This taxon and the next two are very similar (Mayr and Diamond 2001).
Res Solomon Is (except Pavuvu, Malaita, Makira, Ugi Is, Santa Ana, Rennell). Birds on Ontong Java, Ndai, and Sikaiana may be this or an un-named subspecies (Dutson 2011).
T. c. malus Res Solomon Is (Malaita).
T. c. pavuvu Res Solomon Is (Pavuvu, Mbanika).
T. c. solomonis This subspecies and the next two are a group closely-related to Vanuatu birds; amoenus is most distinctive (Mayr and Diamond 2001).
Res Solomon Is (Ugi Is, Makira, Santa Ana, Santa Catalina).
T. c. sororum Res Solomon Is (Three Sisters Is: Malaupaina, Malaulaulo).
T. c. amoenus Res Solomon Is (Rennell, Bellona).
T. c. brachyurus Res Solomon Is (Reef Is: Fenualoa, Lomlom).
T. c. vicinus Res Solomon Is (Duff Is).
T. c. ornatus Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is: Nendo, Tinakula, Dutson 2011).
T. c. utupuae Res Solomon Is (Utupua).
T. c. melanoderus Res Solomon Is (Vanikoro).
T. c. nov. subsp. Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is: Tikopia, Anuta, Mayr 1945, Dutson 2001).
T. c. torresianus Res Vanuatu (Torres Is: Hiu, Lo, Toga).
T. c. santoensis Res Vanuatu (Espiritu Santo to Banks Is, Malo).
T. c. erromangae Res Vanuatu (Erromango, Aneityum).
T. c. tannensis Res Vanuatu (Tanna).
T. c. juliae Res Vanuatu (from Maewo, Ambae, and Aoba s to Efate).

T. cinnamominus Micronesian Kingfisher
NOTE: This species is a member of the T. chloris group (Pratt et al 1987). Pratt and Etpison (2008) consider this group of 3 subspecies to be separate species, using Rusty-capped Kingfisher for the English name of pelewensis.
T. c. pelewensis Res Palau.
T. c. reichenbachii Res Caroline Is (Pohnpei).
T. c. cinnamominus Formerly res Mariana Is (Guam, now extirp, Reichel and Glass 1991).

T. sanctus Sacred Kingfisher
NOTE: Fry and Fry (1999) included T. recurvirostris in T. sanctus, but it is rather distinct. Subspecies norfolkiensis and adamsi are often included in vagans; while adamsi is indeed rather similar to vagans, norfolkiensis, along with birds from Kermadec Is, is rather dissimilar (HANZAB).
T. s. sanctus Res? Solomon Is (has bred Guadalcanal, Three Sisters, other islands, Mayr and Diamond 2001). Mostly vis Mar-Sep Solomon Is from Australia (HANZAB, Hadden 2004a, 2004b) east to Makira but not Rennell or Temotu, but incl Green Is, Tulun, Takuu (Hadden 2004b), Nissan (Tarburton 2006). Vagrant (this subsp?) Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985). Hypo Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Pyle and Engbring 1985).
T. s. vagans Res Kermadec Is (50 prs Raoul I, <10 prs Herald Is, Veitch et al 2004), NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I). Cas (4 recs) Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006).
T. s. norfolkiensis Res Norfolk I.
T. s. adamsi Res Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).
T. s. canacorum Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Isle of Pines).
T. s. macmillani Res New Caledonia (Loyalty Is).
T. s. vitiensis Res Fiji (Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Lomaiviti Group: Koro, Ovalau, Ngau).
T. s. eximius Res Fiji (Kadavu, Ono, Vanua Kula).
T. s. regina Res Wallis and Futuna (Futuna, Alofi, Thibault et al 2015).

T. recurvirostris Flat-billed Kingfisher
NOTE: Sometimes considered conspecific with T. sanctus, but the rusty-bellied taxa found in Fiji (vitiensis, eximius, and regina) are much more similar to T. sanctus than is T. recurvirostris (Pratt et al 1987).
Res Samoa (Savaii, Upolu).

T. tutus Pacific (Chattering) Kingfisher
NOTE: This species and the next five belong to the T. chloris group (Pratt et al 1987); they were considered to constitute the Todiramphus allospecies group by Mayr and Diamond (2001), a more limited position than that taken by Christidis and Boles (1994, 2008). Holyoak (1980) mentions a kingfisher of unknown affinities on Rarotonga until about 1940; it seems likely on geographic grounds to have been part of the T. tutus group.
T. t. tutus Res Society Is (Bora Bora, Maupiti, Raiatea, Huahine, Tahaa, Tupai, Tahiti).
T. t. atiu Res Cook Is (Atiu).
T. t. mauke Res Cook Is (Mauke).
T. t. marinus Res Fiji (Lau Arch.).
T. t. sacer (note correct spelling, Penhallurick) Res Tonga (s islands n to Haapai Grp).
T. t. pealei Res Samoa (Tutuila).
T. t. manuae Res Samoa (Manua Is).

T. veneratus Tahiti Kingfisher
NOTE: This species and the next 4 are sometimes included within T. tutus.
T. v. veneratus Res Society Is (Tahiti).
T. v. youngi Res Society Is (Moorea).

T. ruficollaris Mangaia Kingfisher
NOTE: Treated as a subspecies of T. tutus by Fry and Fry (1999), who noted that it could as easily be included in H. sancta.
Res Cook Is 400-700 inds (Mangaia).

T. gambieri Gambier Kingfisher
NOTE: Fry and Fry (1999), while noting the isolation of this taxon from similar taxa, tentatively included it in T. tutus because of its resemblance to the latter. DuPont (1975) considered this a "doubtful species", questioning the Mangareva type locality and speculating that the single known specimen may have come from Micronesia.
Extinct. Res formerly Gambier Is (Mangareva).

T. gertrudae Niau Kingfisher
NOTE: Although sometimes treated with gambieri as subspecies of "Tuamotu Kingfisher", the two are separated by 1250 km with no evidence that kingfishers occurred on the scores of intervening islands (Fry and Fry 1999).
Res Tuamotu Is (Niau).

T. godeffroyi Marquesas Kingfisher
Res Marquesas Is (Hiva Oa, Tahuata, Fatu Hiva, poss extirpated Hiva Oa, Fatu Hiva).