Notiomystis cincta Stitchbird (Hihi)
NOTE: Work by Ewen et al (2006) and Driskell et al (2007) showed that this taxon is not closely-related to Meliphagidae, but separated from Callaeatidae long enough ago to be distinct at the generic level.
N. c. hautura Res NZ (Little Barrier I several thousand inds). Reint NZ (Tiritiri Matangi I 226 inds Feb 2008, Kapiti I 100+, Karori Sanctuary in Wellington where nesting in tall Kauri trees, Maungatautari).
N. c. cincta Extirp NZ (NI).

CALLAEIDAE (5 species)

Callaeas cinereus South Island Kokako
NOTE: David and Gosselin (2002b) established that Callaeas is masculine.
The NI and SI populations have been separated at the specific level based on plumage and ecological differences (Holdaway et al 2001; Murphy et al 2006).

Extinct? Res NZ (SI, Stewart I); 50 calls ascribed to this subspecies in Big River Valley, Fiordland Jan 2006, Southern bird #26).

C. wilsoni North Island Kokako
Res NZ (NI 1650 inds in about 15 discrete populations; int Little Barrier I, Tiritiri Matangi I, Kapiti I; reint Mt Bruce, Boundary Stream, Ngapukeariki; reint in progress Whitinaki, Waitakere Ranges, Otanewainuku, Puketi Forest; translocated Secretary I; Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).

Philesturnus carunculatus South Island Saddleback
NOTE: The NI and SI taxa are treated as separate species based on size and plumage differences, and the possession of a juvenile plumage only by carunculatus (Holdaway et al 2001).
Res 650 inds NZ (South Cape islands off Stewart I; extirp SI, Stewart I; reint islands off Stewart I, Breaksea I in Fiordland, Motuara I in Marlborough Sounds, Ulva I, Long I, Blumine I, Anchor I, Chalky I; reint in progress Orokonui, additional islands off s. Stewart I).

P. rufusater North Island Saddleback
Res NZ (5000 inds Hen I; extirp NI, Great Barrier I, Little Barrier I, Hen and Chickens Is except Hen I, Cuvier Is; reint Hen and Chickens Is (Lady Alice, Whatupuke; self- int Coppermine), Cuvier I, Mercury Is (Red Mercury I, Stanley I), Little Barrier I; int Tiritiri Matangi I (400+), Kapiti I, Mokoia I (Lake Rotorua), Motuihe I (Hauraki Gulf) 20 inds from Tiritiri Matangi I, Whale I, Bushy Park. Reint in progress Motutapu I, Rangitoto I, Tawharanui).

Heterolocha acutirostris Huia
Extinct. Res formerly NZ (NI).

PETROICIDAE (5 species)

Christidis and Boles (1994) note that Petroicidae has priority over Eopsaltridae.

Microeca flaviventris Yellow-bellied Robin
NOTE: Genetic studies show this species belongs in Microeca (Boyd).
Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Ile de Pins).

Petroica multicolor Pacific Robin
P. m. septentrionalis Res Solomon Is (Bougainville).
P. m. kulambangrae Res Solomon Is (Kolombangara).
P. m. polymorpha Res Solomon Is (Makira).
P. m. dennisi Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Mayr and Diamond 2001).
P. m. ambrynensis Res Vanuatu (except Emae, Nguna, Emau, Efate, Erromango, Tanna, Aneityum).
P. m. feminina Res Vanuatu (Efate, Emae, Nguna, Emau).
P. m. soror Res Solomon Is (Banks Is: Vanua Lava).
P. m. cognata Res Vanuatu (Erromango).
P. m. similis Res Vanuatu (Tanna, Aneityum).
P. m. kleinschmidti Res Fiji (Viti Levu, Vanua Levu).
P. m. taveunensis Res Fiji (Taveuni).
P. m. becki Res Fiji (Kadavu).
P. m. pusilla Res Samoa (Savaii, Upolu).
P. m. multicolor Res Norfolk I.

P. macrocephala New Zealand Tomtit
NOTE: Holdaway et al (2001) raised most taxa usually considered subspecies to species level, as 4 species: the distinctive Auckland Is and Snares Is Tomtits, M. toitoi White-breasted Tomtit of NI, and SI and Chatham Is birds as subspecies of P. macrocephala Yellow-breasted Tomtit. Genetic studies by Miller and Lambert (2006), however, indicated recent radiation of macrocephala. Subspecific status of the taxa was retained by OSNZ (2010).
P. m. toitoi Res NZ (NI Great Barrier I, Little Barrier I, Kapiti I) Int Cape Sanctuary in Hawkes Bay (Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).
P. m. macrocephala Res NZ (SI, Stewart I, Solander I).
P. m. chathamensis Res Chatham Is (Pitt I 500 inds, Mangere I 70-100 inds, South East I 200-300 inds, Little Mangere I <10 inds, Powlesland et al 2001; extirpated Chatham I but re-introduced there 20 inds 2011 (Powlesland et al 2011).
P. m. marrineri Res Auckland Is.
P. m. dannefaerdi Res Snares Is 500+ prs (Miskelly et al 2001).

P. traversi Black Robin
NOTE: Genetic studies by Miller and Lambert (2006) suggested this species is closer to P. macrocephala than P. longipes or P. australis.
Res Chatham Is (Little Mangere I 259 inds in 1999; extirpated Chatham I, Pitt I, Mangere I; reint South East I, Mangere I, Pitt I 2001-2005 (failed; Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).

P. australis South Island Robin
NOTE: Holdaway et al (2001) considered longipes and australis specifically distinct, as did genetic studies by Miller and Lambert (2006).
P. a. australis Res NZ (SI). Reint Allports I, Motuara I in Marlborough Sds, Hawea, Anchor , Pigeon I in Dusky Sd, West Matukituki Valley, Adele I, Pomona I, Chalky I, Orokonui Sanctuary; Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).
P. a. rakiura Res NZ (Stewart I). Reint Ulva I, Putauhinu I; Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).

P. longipes North Island Robin
Res NZ (NI, Little Barrier I, Kapiti I). Reint NZ (Tiritiri Matangi I, Moturua I in Bay of Islands, Mokoia I, Mana I, Boundary Stream, Karori Sanctuary, Bushy Park, Mayor I, Tawaharanui, Cape Samctuary, Puketi Forest; several other locations in progress; Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).

PARIDAE (1 species)

Poecile varius Varied Tit
P. v. varius? Int Hawaiian Is (Kauai, Oahu; now extirpated).

ALAUDIDAE (2 species)

Calandrella brachydactyla Greater Short-toed Lark
NOTE: Often considered conspecific with C. cinerea.
C. b. dukhunensis? Acc s Izu Is (Apr Torishima).

Alauda arvensis Sky Lark
A. a. pekinensis Acc Hawaiian Is (Kure Oct 1963 and Nov 2014, Nov and Dec reports Midway unsubstantiated, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Johnson Atoll (Pyle and Pyle 2009).
A. a. arvensis Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is, some showing influence of japonica; one French Frigate Shoals Oct 1991 poss this subsp from SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009), NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is. Cas Lord Howe I (3 recs, Jun-Sep, prob from NZ, McAllan et al 2004), Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004), Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001). Acc Auckland Is, Nov Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002).

HIRUNDINIDAE (13 species)

Riparia riparia Sand Martin (Bank Swallow)
R. r. subsp? Cas Clipperton I, Cocos I (Apr, Dean and Montoya 2005), Galapagos Is (Espanola, Genovesa, San Cristobal).

Tachycineta bicolor Tree Swallow
Acc Clipperton I.

Progne subis Purple Martin
P. s. subsp? Cas Clipperton I, Cocos I (Montoya 2012), Galapagos Is (Espanola, Santa Cruz).

P. modesta Galapagos Martin
NOTE: Sometimes considered conspecific with P. murphyi Peruvian Martin and P. elegans Southern Martin.
Res Galapagos Is (except Culpepper, Wenman, Marchena, Pinta, Rabida, Genovesa).

Stelgidopteryx serripennis Northern Rough-winged Swallow
S. s. subsp? Acc Guadelupe I, Revillagigedos Is (Apr Socorro, Jehl and Parkes 1982; Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).

Hirundo rustica Barn Swallow
H. r. erythrogaster Cas Revillagigedo Is (Clarion, San Benedicto, Brattstrom and Howell 1956), Clipperton I, Cocos I (Montoya 2003), Galapagos Is (Santa Maria, Espanola, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz). Acc Hawaiian Is (Hawaii Jan 1964, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
H. r. gutturalis Vis Sep-May s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei); Marshall Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Hawaiian Is (Midway Mar 1965, reports Midway Sep and Mar not identified to subspecies, nor was one Kure Sep 1964, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

H. tahitica Pacific Swallow
H. t. subfusca Res Solomon Is (incl Nissan, Hadden 2004b, Buka, Bougainville, and Santa Cruz Is, but not Rennell, Dutson 2011), Vanuatu, New Caledonia (Loyalty Is (Ouvea <10 prs, Barre and Dutson 2000), Fiji, Tonga (Eua, Vavau, Tongatapu, Nomuka Group, Tofua). Cas New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Is: Lifou, Mare, ?Walpole, Barre and Dutson 2000).
H. t. tahitica Res Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea).

H. neoxena Welcome Swallow
NOTE: Sometimes treated as a subspecies of H. tahitica.
H. n. neoxena Res Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I (also many migrants, Christian 2005), NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is (Chatham, breeding since 1976, Aikman and Miskelly 2004). Vis Apr-Oct, mostly Apr-Jul New Caledonia (Barre and Bachy 2003). Cas Kermadec Is, Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001). Acc May Macquarie I (N. Milius).

Delichon dasypus Asian House-Martin
NOTE: Although David and Gosselin (2002b) established that Delichon is neuter, dasypus is invariable.
Hypo Aug-Dec Palau (reports do not eliminate possibility of D. urbicum Common House Martin, Pratt et al 2010).

Cecropis daurica Red-rumped Swallow
NOTE: Sometimes included in Hirundo.
C. d. daurica? Acc Solomon Is (Mar Bougainville, Mayr and Diamond 2001; Hadden 2004a; Dec-Jan Bougainville, Dutson 2011).

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota American Cliff Swallow
P. p. subsp? Cas Galapagos Is ("only a few records" Swash and Still 2005), Cocos I Apr (Dean and Montoya 2005). Acc Hawaiian Is (French Frigate Shoals Oct-Nov 1991, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Clipperton I.

P. nigricans Tree Martin
NOTE: Sometimes included in Hirundo.
P. n. nigricans Vis Apr-Dec Solomon Is (Apr and Sep Nissan, Tarburton 2006, Hadden 2004b; Jun-Dec Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Malaita; Guadalcanal, Dutson 2001; Rennell, Filardi et al 1999). Cas (this subsp?) New Caledonia (Apr-Oct, Dutson 2011, Barre and Bachy 2003), Nov-Apr NZ (NI, SI), Dec-Apr and Aug Lord Howe I (5 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Aug-Feb Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001). Acc Dec Caroline Is (Chuuk-Satawan Atoll, Buden 2006), Dec Norfolk I (Hobcroft), ?Kermadec Is (Sep Raoul, Veitch et al 2004), Nov Chatham Is (O'Donnell and West 1990), Macquarie I (OSNZ 2010).

P. ariel Fairy Martin
NOTE: Sometimes included in Hirundo.
Cas Jan-Oct Lord Howe I (7 recs, McAllan et al 2004; one May 2006, Mustoe), NZ (10 records Jul-Jan NI,SI, OSNZ 2010); Snares Is Nov 2004 OSNZ 2010). Acc Dec Norfolk I (Hobcroft).


Separation of this family and the next 4 from Sylviidae was discussed by Christidis and Boles (2008). Taxonomic order of the following is based on Boyd as well as Cibois et al (2011a). The latter authors postulated two main lineages of reed-warblers that colonized the Pacific; a northern radiation through the Hawaiian Islands, Tuamotu and Society Islands, to the northern Marquesas Islands, and a southern radiation passing eastwards through the central Pacific including the Caroline Islands, Nauru, Australia, Kiribati, and the southern Marquesas Islands. See also Pratt et al 1987, Dickinson 2003.

Acrocephalus arundinaceus Great Reed-Warbler
Acc (this sp? listed as hypo by Engbring 1988) Palau.

A. orientalis Oriental Reed-Warbler
NOTE: Considered by some a subspecies of A. arundinaceus.
Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. Acc Palau (photo Apr, Pratt and Etpison 2008, Wiles et al 2000). Hypo Caroline Is (Yap Feb Wiles et al 2000, Pratt et al 2010).

A. luscinius Guam Reed-Warbler
NOTE: Use of luscinius, an invariable noun, rather than luscinia is discussed by David and Gosselin (2002a). Saitoh et al (2012) suggested retaining the English name Nightingale Reed-Warbler for the only extant population (Saipan and Alamagan), rather than for the extinct population on Guam. Pratt et al (1987) separated syrinx and rehsei as species, a change confirmed by Cibois et al (2011a), who also concluded that luscinius was closer to the group A. stentoreus, A. orientaliis, and A. arundinaceus than to the remaining Pacific radiation. Cibois et al (2011a) suggested that there were 3 colonizations of the Mariana Is, on Guam, Pagan, and Saipan; taxa from these islands are accorded specific status here. A single sample from an Alamagan specimen indicated no difference from Saipan birds (Saitoh 2012). This and the next 8 species are part of the southern radiation, while the final 11 species are part of the northern radiation.
Extinct. Formerly res Mariana Is (Guam, ?Tinian).

A. yamashinae Pagan Reed-Warbler
Extinct? Res Mariana Is (Pagan).

A. hiwai Nightingale Reed-Warbler
Res Mariana Is (Saipan 2530+ inds; Alamagan 210+ inds, Marshall et al 2011, Mosher and Fancy 2002).

A. nijoi Aguiguan Reed-Warbler
Extinct? 1-6 inds 2002 but none found 2008 (Marshall et al 2011, Reichel and Glass 1991).

A. syrinx Caroline Islands Reed-Warbler
Res Caroline Is (Yap: Woleai Atoll, Lamotrek Atoll, Baker 1951, Truk, Pohnpei, extirpated Kosrae?).

A. rehsei Nauru Reed-Warbler
Res Nauru (5000 inds, Buden 2008).

A. australis Australian Reed-Warbler
NOTE: Often considered conspecific with A. stentoreus Clamorous Reed-Warbler. Clements (2000) separated Solomon Is taxa as toxopei within A. australis, and applied sumbae to birds in parts of the Moluccas and Lesser Sundas; this treatment is followed here.
A. s. toxopei Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Guadalcanal, Santa Isabel, Mbanika, Gijunabena Is near Santa Isabel, Dutson 2011).
A. a. subsp., presumably Australian carterae, gouldi, or australis. Acc NZ (Nov 2004 SI).

A. aequinoctialis Bokikokiko
A. a. aequinoctialis Res Kiribati (Kiritimati).
A. a. pistor Res Kiribati (Tabueran, Teraina).

A. mendanae Southern Marquesas Reed-Warbler
A. m. mendanae Res Marquesas Is (Hiva Oa, Tahuata).
A. m. consobrinus Res Marquesas Is (Motane).
A. m. fatuhivae Res Marquesas Is (Fatu Hiva).
A. m. idae Res Marquesas Is (Ua Huka).
A. m. dido Res Marquesas Is (Ua Pou).
A. m. aquilonis Res Marquesas Is (Eiao).
A. m. postremus Res Marquesas Is (Hatutu).

A. astrolabii Gambier Islands Reed-Warbler
NOTE: This species discussed by Cibois et al (2011b).
Extinct. Formerly res Gambier Is (Mangareva).

A. atyphus Tuamotu Reed-Warbler
A. a. atyphus Res nw Tuamotu Is.
A. a. ravus Res se Tuamotu Is.
A. a. palmarum Res Tuamotu Is (Anaa).
A. a. niauensis Res Tuamotu Is (Niau).
A. a. eremus Res Tuamotu Is (Makatea).
A. a. flavidus Res Tuamotu Is (Napuka).

A. percernis Northern Marquesan Reed-Warbler
A. p. percernis Res Marquesas Is (Nuku Hiva).
A. p. idae Res Marquesas Is (Ua Huka).

A. longirostris Moorea Reed-Warbler
Extinct. Formerly res Society Is (Moorea). Very rare by 1975, Thibault et al (1975).

A. caffer Tahiti Reed-Warbler
Res Society Is (Tahiti, 100-300 territories, Cibois et al 2008).

A. musae Leeward Islands Reed-Warbler
A. c. musae Extinct. Res Society Is (Raiatea).
A. c. garretti Extinct. Res Society Is (Huahine).

A. kerearako Cook Islands Reed-Warbler
A. k. kerearako Res Cook Is (Mangaia).
A. k. kaoko Res Cook Is (Mitiaro).

A. rimitarae Rimatara Reed-Warbler
Res Tubuai Is (Rimatara; at most 2567 inds, Thibault and Cibois 2006).

A. taiti Henderson Island Reed-Warbler
Res Pitcairn Is (Henderson).

A. vaughani Pitcairn Island Reed-Warbler
Res Pitcairn Is (Pitcairn).

A. familiaris Millerbird
NOTE: Pratt (in Moore et al 2001) discussed these taxa; there is some evidence in favor of their status as separate species.
A. f. kingi Res Hawaiian Is (Nihoa 814 inds, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
A. f. familiaris Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is.


The family name Megaluridae is replaced by Locustellidae, as recommended by the British Ornithologists' Union (Boyd).

Bowdleria punctata Fernbird
NOTE: OSNZ (1990) is followed here in using Bowdleria rather than Megalurus; anatomical differences separate the genera (Olson 1990).
B. p. vealeae Res NZ (NI, Great Barrier I, Aldermen Is). Reint NZ (Tiritiri Matangi I).
B. p. punctata Res NZ (SI).
B. p. stewartiana Res NZ (Stewart I and outliers except Codfish I).
B. p. wilsoni Res NZ (Codfish I). Reint Putauhinu I, Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).

B. caudata Snares Island Fernbird
NOTE: This taxon and the next are "quite distinct" from B. punctata (Worthy and Holdaway 2002).
Res Snares Is 1500 prs (Miskelly et al 2001).

B. rufescens Chatham Islands Fernbird
Extinct. Res formerly Chatham Is (Chatham, Pitt, Mangere).

Locustella lanceolata Lanceolated Warbler
L. l. subsp.? Acc Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008).

Megalurulus mariei New Caledonia Grassbird
NOTE: Mayr and Diamond (2001) use the generic name Cichlornis for this and the next two species; the three are sometimes considered conspecific.
Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre).

M. whitneyi Santo Thicketbird
Res Vanuatu (Espiritu Santo).

M. turipavae Guadalcanal Thicketbird
Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).

M. llaneae Bougainville Thicketbird
Res Solomon Is (Bougainville).

M. rufus Long-legged Warbler
NOTE: Mayr and Diamond (2001) use the generic name Ortygocichla.
T. r. rufus Res Fiji (Viti Levu <250 inds, Masibalavu and Dutson 2006).
T. r. cluniei Res Fiji (Vanua Levu).

PYCNONOTIDAE (3 species)

Pycnonotus jocosus Red-whiskered Bulbul
P. j. emeria? Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

P. cafer Red-vented Bulbul
P. c. bengalensis Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu), Marshall Is (Majuro, Trevor), Tonga (Nukualofa, Eua, Niuafoou, Tongatapu, Vavau), Tahiti, NZ (extirp? NI), Fiji (Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Ovalau, Taveuni, Gau, Beqa, Wakaya, Wairiki, Waiyevo), Samoa (Savaii, Upolu, Tutuila), New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Notornis 42:214; Barre and Dutson 2000, Dutson 2011).

Microscelis amaurotis Chestnut-eared Bulbul
NOTE: Sometimes placed in genus Hypsipetes.
M. a. amaurotis Res s Izu Is (Torishima).
M. a. squamiceps Res Ogasawara Is (Mukojima, Chichijima, Hahajima).
M. a. magnirostris Res Iwo Is (Kita-iwojima, Iwojima).

CETTIIDAE (6 species)

The genus Cettia as usually constituted is polyphyletic, and Cettia itself is monotypic; Horeites is used for several species often included in Cettia (Boyd), and this is followed below.

Urosphena squameiceps Stub-tailed Bush-Warbler
NOTE: Sometimes included in Cettia.
U. s. subsp.? Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima, Hahajima).

Horeites diphone Japanese Bush-Warbler
H. d. diphone Res s Izu Is (Torishima), Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. Int (prob this subsp, Hawaiian Is (SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

H. annae Palau Bush-Warbler
Res Palau (Babelduab to Peleliu).

H. parens Shade Bush-Warbler
Res Solomon Is (Makira).

H. haddeni Bougainville Bush-Warbler (Odedi)
Res Solomon Is (Bougainville, Hadden 2004a).

H. ruficapillus Fiji Bush-Warbler
H. r. ruficapillus Res Fiji (Kadavu).
H. r. badiceps Res Fiji (Viti Levu).
H. r. castaneopterus Res Fiji (Vanua Levu).
H. r. funebris Res Fiji (Taveuni).


Phylloscopus inornatus Yellow-browed Warbler
P. i. inornatus Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).

P. poliocephalus Island Leaf-Warbler
P. p. becki Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Malaita, Santa Isabel).
P. p. bougainvillei Res Solomon Is (Bougainville).
P. p. pallescens Res Solomon Is (Kolombangara).

P. makirensis Makira Leaf-Warbler
Res Solomon Is (Makira).

P. amoenus Kolombangara Leaf-Warbler
Res Solomon Is (Kolombangara).

P. borealis Arctic warbler
Acc Hawaiian Is (Kauai 13 Feb 2000- Melgar