ZOSTEROPIDAE (40 species)

Cibois (2003) has shown that this family is closely-related to the Timaliidae; Christidis and Boles (2008) merged the two as Timaliidae. The genera Rukia, Cleptornis, Apalopteron, and Megazosterops are currently considered basal to the remaining Zosterops (see Boyd for discussion).

Rukia ruki Truk White-eye
Res Caroline Is (Truk).

R. longirostra Long-billed White-eye
Res Caroline Is (Pohnpei).

Cleptornis marchei Golden White-eye
NOTE: This and the next species previously placed in Meliphagidae, but recent studies show both correctly placed in Zosteropidae (Dickinson (2003).
Res Mariana Is (Saipan, Agiguan).

Apalopteron familiare Bonin Islands Honeyeater
A. f. familiare Extinct. Res Ogasawara Is (Mukoshima, Nakodojima).
A. f. hahasima Res Ogasawara Is (only survives on Hahajima, Brazil 2009).

Megazosterops palauensis Giant White-eye
Affinities uncertain (Pratt et al 1980; Dickinson 2003).
Res Palau (Peleliu, Ngeruktabl).

Zosterops japonicus Japanese White-eye
Z. j. japonicus Vis s Izu Is (Torishima). Int Hawaiian Is (this subsp., Pyle and Pyle 2009; SE Is.), Johnston I.
Z. j. stejnegeri Res s Izu Is (Torishima). Populations on Ogasawara Is (Chichijima, Hahajima, Mukojima) are hybrids of stejnegeri and alani as a result of introductions (Brazil 1991).
Z. j. alani Res Iwo Is (Kita-iwojima, Iwojima).

Z. conspicillatus Mariana Islands Bridled White-eye
NOTE: Genetic studies confirm Pratt et al (1987) in separating this and the next three species.
Z. c. saypani Res Mariana Is (Tinian, Saipan, Aguiguan).
Z. c. conspicillatus Formerly res Mariana Is (extirp Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991).

Z. rotensis Rota Bridled White-eye
Res Mariana Is (Rota c1167 inds, Craig 1999).

Z. semperi Citrine (Caroline Islands) White-eye
Z. s. semperi Res Palau (Babelduab to MeCherchar, absent Peleliu and Angaur, Engbring 1988).
Z. s. owstoni Res Caroline Is (Truk).
Z. c. takatsukasai Res Caroline Is (Pohnpei).

Z. hypolais Plain (Yap) White-eye
Res Caroline Is (Yap).

Z. metcalfii Yellow-throated White-eye
NOTE: Mayr and Diamond (2001) include exiguus in metcalfii.
Z. m. exiguus Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is, Choiseul).
Z. m. metcalfii Res Solomon Is (Santa Isabel incl Molakobi, Bates, and San Jorge).
Z. m. floridanus Res Solomon Is (Florida, Tulaghi).

Z. griseotinctus Louisiade White-eye
Z. g. eichhorni Res Solomon Is (Nissan, Tarburton 2006).

Z. rennellianus Rennell White-eye
NOTE: This and the next six species constitute a superspecies (Mayr and Diamond 2001).
Res Solomon Is (Rennell).

Z. vellalavella Banded White-eye
NOTE: David and Gosselin (2002b) indicate that vellalavella is invariable.
Res Solomon Is (Bagga=Mbava, Vella Lavella).

Z. luteirostris Gizo (Yellow-billed, Splendid) White-eye
Res Solomon Is (Ghizo).

Z. splendidus Ranongga White-eye
NOTE: Sometimes treated as conspecific with Z.luteirostris.
Res Solomon Is (Ranongga).

Z. kulambangrae Solomons White-eye
NOTE: This and the next two species are sometimes treated as conspecific. Non-use of the name rendovae, a source of considerable confusion, is discussed by Dickinson (2003).
Res Solomon Is (Kulambangra, Vonavona, Kohinggo, Vangunu, New Georgia, Nggatokae).

Z. paradoxus (=rendovae) Rendova White-Eye
Res Solomon Is (Rendova).

Z. tetiparius Tetepare White-eye
Res Solomon Is (Tetepare).

Z. murphyi Kolombangara White-eye
Res Solomon Is (Kolombangara).

Z. ugiensis Grey-throated White-eye
NOTE: The specific name rendovae has been used for this species, but recent authors reject arguments for its use.
Z. u. ugiensis Res Solomon Is (Makira).
Z. u. oblitus Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).

Z. hamlini Bougainville White-eye
NOTE: Recent studies suggest this taxon is specifically distinct (Boyd; Moyle et al 2009).
Res Solomon Is (Bougainville).

Z. stresemanni Malaita White-eye
Res Solomon Is (Malaita).

Z. sanctaecrucis Santa Cruz White-eye
Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is: Nendo).

Z. gibbsi Vanikoro White-eye
Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is: Vanikoro, Dutson 2008).

Z. samoensis Samoan White-eye
Res Samoa (Savaii).

Z. explorator Layard's White-eye
Res Fiji (Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Ovalau, Taveuni, Kadavu).

Z. flavifrons Yellow-fronted White-eye
Z. f. gauensis Res Vanuatu (Banks Is: Gaua).
Z. f. perplexus Res Vanuatu (Maewo, Ambae, Pentecost, Ambrym, Paama, Lopevi, Epi, Tongoa, Banks Is: Vanua Lava, Mere Lava).
Z. f. brevicauda David and Gosselin (2002b) note that brevicauda is invariable.
Res Vanuatu (Malo, Espiritu Santo).
Z. f. macgillivrayi Res Vanuatu (Malakula).
Z. f. efatensis Res Vanuatu (Nguna, Efate, Erromango).
Z. f. flavifrons Res Vanuatu (Tanna, Aniwa).
Z. f. majusculus Res Vanuatu (Aneityum).

Z. minutus Small Lifou White-eye
Res New Caledonia (Loyalty Is: Lifou).

Z. xanthochroa Green-backed White-eye
NOTE: Use of xanthochroa rather than xanthochrous is discussed by David and Gosselin (2002a,b).
Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Ile des Pins, Loyalty Is: Mare, Dutson 2011).

Z. lateralis Silver-eye
Z. l. lateralis This taxon was introduced to Lord Howe Island in 1924 (Long 1981), but was extirpated by the mid-1960s (Long 1981, Hutton 1991) with no evidence of interbreeding with endemic tephropleurus (McKean and Hindwood, in Long 1981 and Christidis and Boles 1994; McAllan et al 2004). Christidis and Boles afforded both taxa subspecific status within Z. lateralis until definitive studies on possible interbreeding are completed. Here, tephropleurus is listed separately, below, as a full species, based on the purported absence of interbreeding.
Res Norfolk I (OSNZ 2010), NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Snares Is 200 prs, Antipodes I, Auckland Is, Campbell I. Cas Kermadec Is (Aug-Sep, Veitch et al 2004). Acc Macquarie I (Tasmania PWS). Int Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Bora Bora), Tubuai Is (Raivavae, Tubuai, Rurutu), Tuamotu Is (Makatea; in Shirihai 2002).
Z. l. griseonota David and Gosselin (2002b) note that griseonota is invariable.
Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Ile de Pins).
Z. l. nigrescens Res New Caledonia (Loyalty Is: Mare, Ouvea).
Z. l. melanops Res New Caledonia (Loyalty Is: Lifou).
Z. l. tropicus Res Vanuatu (Torres Is, Banks Is, south to Malo, probably Ambae, Maewo, Pentecost, Dutson 2011).
Z. l. macmillani Res Vanuatu (Tanna, Aniwa).
Z. l. vatensis Res Vanuatu (Malekula south to Erromango).
Z. l. valuensis Res Vanuatu (Banks Is: Motu Lava).
Z. l. flaviceps Res Fiji except Lau Arch.

Z. tephropleurus Lord Howe White-eye
NOTE: Some authors consider this conspecific with Z. lateralis.
Res Lord Howe I 5000 inds.

Z. tenuirostris Slender-billed White-eye
Res Norfolk I, pop 1400 NINP and 300-500 other sites, absent Philip I, 1987-88.

Z. strenuus Robust White-eye
NOTE: Considered by Schodde and Mason (1999) separate from tenuirostris only at the subspecific level, but behavioral and structural differences suggest otherwise (McAllan et al 2004).
Extinct. Formerly res Lord Howe I.

Z. albogularis White-chested White-eye
Res Norfolk I <20 inds?

Z. inornatus Large Lifou White-eye
Res New Caledonia (Loyalty Is: Lifou).

Z. finschii Dusky White-eye
NOTE: This and the next species sometimes treated as conspecific.
Res Palau (Babelduab to Peleliu).

Z. cinereus Grey White-eye
Z. c. ponapensis Res Caroline Is (Pohnpei).
Z. c. cinereus Res Caroline Is (Kosrae).

Z. oleagineus Yap Olive White-eye
NOTE: Sometimes included in Rukia, but DNA data indicate Zosterops is correct.
Res Caroline Is (Yap).

Z. superciliosa Woodford's White-eye
NOTE: This taxon and the next were formerly included in Woodfordia (see Boyd for discussion).
Res Solomon Is (Rennell).

Z. lacertosa Sanford's White-eye
Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is: Nendo).


These species were formerly incuded in Timaliidae, but the latter has been shown to be polyphyletic. Use of Leiothrichidae was discussed by Boyd (http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List23.html).

Garrulax pectoralis Greater Necklaced Laughing-Thrush
G. p. picticollis? Int Hawaiian Is (Kauai).

G. caerulatus Gray-sided Laughing-Thrush
G. c. latifrons? Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu, likely extirpated ca 1980, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

G. canorus Melodious Laughing-Thrush (Hwamei)
G. c. canorus Int Hawaiian Is (Kauai, Maui, Hawaii, Oahu, Lanai, ?Molokai, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Leiothrix lutea Red-billed Leiothrix
NOTE: Early introductions of calipyga appear to have been swamped by lutea (Pyle and Pyle 2009).
L. l. lutea Int Hawaiian Is (Molokai 1800 inds, Maui 19,800 inds, Hawaii 98,000 inds, Oahu; extirp ca. 1980 Kauai, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

REGULIDAE (1 species)

Regulus calendula Ruby-crowned Kinglet
R. c. obscurus Res (extinct?) Guadalupe I.

MOHOIDAE (5 species)

The following 5 species were found not to be part of Meliphagidae, but closest to Ptilogonatidae (Fleischer et al 2008).

Moho braccatus Kauai Oo (Ooaa)
Extinct (last seen 1981, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Kauai).

M. apicalis Oahu Oo
Extinct (last collected 1837, no records since, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Oahu).

M. bishopi Bishop's Oo
Extinct (Reynolds and Snetsinger, in Scott et al 2001; last sightings 1903-04, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Molokai; presence on Maui unconfirmed, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

M. nobilis Hawaii Oo
Extinct (last recorded 1902, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).

Chaetoptila augustipluma Kioea
Extinct (la st record 1859, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).


Bombycilla japonica Japanese Waxwing
Cas Iwo Is.

B. garrulus Bohemian Waxwing
B. g. garrulus (includes centralasiae) Cas Nov-Feb s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.

B. cedrorum Cedar Waxwing
Cas Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (incl Clarion, Wanless et al 2009). Acc Galapagos Is (Genovesa).

Phainopepla nitens Phainopepla
NOTE: Sometimes included in separate family Ptilogonotidae.
P. n. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I.


Salpinctes obsoletus Rock Wren
S. o. guadeloupensis Res Guadalupe I.
S. o. exsul Extinct. Res formerly (until 1952) Revillagigedo Is (San Benedicto).

Thryomanes bewickii Bewick's Wren
T. b. brevicaudus Extirpated Guadalupe I.

Troglodytes tanneri Clarion Wren
Res Revillagigedo Is (Clarion).

T. sissonii Socorro Wren
NOTE: Placement in Troglodytes (Howell and Webb 1995) was confirmed by DNA studies (Gomez et al 2005).
Res Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).

SITTIDAE (1 species)

Sitta canadensis Red-breasted Nuthatch
Res (extirpated?) Guadalupe I. Acc Mar Revillagigedo Is.