PRUNELLIDAE (1 species)

Prunella modularis Dunnock
P. m. subsp? Int NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Campbell I, Antipodes Is, Auckland Is. Cas Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).


ESTRILDIDAE (23 species)

Uraeginthus bengalus Red-cheeked Cordonbleu
U. b. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).

Estrilda caerulescens Lavender Waxbill
NOTE: There are no confirmed records of E. perreini Black-tailed Waxbill for the Hawaiian Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009).
Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Oahu; Kalodimos 2007, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

E. melpoda Orange-cheeked Waxbill
E. m. subsp? Int Mariana Is (Saipan, Wiles 2005, Pyle and Pyle 2009); Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Maui).

E. troglodytes Black-rumped Waxbill
Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, extirp Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

E. astrild Common Waxbill
E. a. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (minor? Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea), New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Ile de Pins, Barre and Dutson 2000), Vanuatu (Efate).

Amandava amandava Red Avadavat
A. a. punicea? Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Hawaii, Kauai, ?Niihau, ?Maui, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Fiji (Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Kadavu, Taveuni, Lomaiviti Group), Vanuatu (self-int Efate).

Neochmia temporalis Red-browed Firetail
NOTE: Sometimes placed in the genus Emblema.
E. t. subsp? Int Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea), Marquesas Is (Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka, Ua Pou, Hiva Oa, Chester et al 1998). Acc (origin?) Vanuatu (Efate).

Taeniopygia guttata Zebra Finch
Int and extirp Nauru (int 1950s, still pres 1961, Buden 2008).

Erythrura trichroa Blue-faced Parrotfinch
E. t. pelewensis Res Palau (Peleliu north to s. Babelthuap, mostly Rock Is, Pratt and Etpison 2008).
E. t. clara Res Caroline Is (Truk, Pohnpei fewer than 100 inds; hypo on atolls-Lukunor? Buden 2006).
E. t. trichroa Res Caroline Is (Kosrae).
E. t. woodfordi Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Bougainville- this subsp?, Kolombangara-this subsp?).
E. t. cyaneifrons Res Vanuatu (Banks Is: Gaua; remaining smaller islands of Vanuatu, but not Malakula, Espiritu Santo), New Caledonia (Loyalty Is: Lifou, Mare).

E. psittacea Red-throated Parrotfinch
Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Ile de Pins).

E. pealii Fiji Parrotfinch
NOTE: Considered part of E. cyaneovirens by some authors, but see Bregulla (1992), Watling (2001).
Res Fiji (Yasawa Is, Mamanuca Is, Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Kadavu).

E. cyaneovirens Samoan Parrotfinch
E. c. cyaneovirens Res Samoa (Upolu).
E. c. gaughrani Res Samoa (Savaii, duPont, WB 84:375, 1972).

E. regia Royal Parrotfinch
NOTE: Some authors include in E. cyaneovirens.
E. r. regia Res Vanuatu (Banks Is, Vanuatu except Aneityum, Efate, duPont 1972, Bregulla 1992).
E. r. serena Res Vanuatu (Aneityum, duPont 1972, Bregulla 1992).
E. r. efatensis Res Vanuatu (Efate).

E. kleinschmidti Pink-billed Parrotfinch
Res Fiji (Viti Levu est 2500-10,000 inds, Masibalavu and Dutson 2006).

Lonchura cantans African Silverbill
NOTE: This species and L. malabarica Warbling (Indian) Silverbill were formerly considered conspecific (see AOU 7th Edition) but have now been afforded specific status (Harrison, 1964: Ibis 106: 462-468).
L. c. cantans Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Two landed on boat Oct 2010 180 km sw of Kaula Rock (Webb, Pyle). One landed on a boat 70 mi se of Nihoa 1 Aug 2011 (http://www.facebook.com/notes/kure-atoll-conservancy/african-silverbill-observed-south-of-nihoa/250540234964236).

L. punctulata Nutmeg Mannikin (Scaly-breasted Munia)
L. p. punctulata Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
L. p. cabanisi Int Caroline Is (int or self-int Yap), Palau (int 1949 and extirp soon after; Baker 1951, Pratt et al 1987, Pratt and Etpison 2008).

L. atricapilla Southern Black-headed Mannikin (Black-headed Munia)
NOTE: Formerly considered conspecific with L. malacca Chestnut Mannikin (Chestnut Munia); the latter English name now probably best used for L. ferruginosa (Sibley and Monroe).
L. a. jagori Int Palau (Babelduab, Koror, Peleliu; Pratt and Etpison 2008), Mariana Is (Guam, extirp? Wiles et al 2000), Hawaiian Is (this subsp., Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

L. malacca Tricolored (Chestnut) Mannikin
L. m. subsp.? Vanuatu (Santo, Malekula, Aore, Malo, Dutson 2011).

L. hunsteini White-headed Finch (Hunstein's Munia)
L. h. minor Res Caroline Is (int Pohnpei, Pyle and Engbring 1985, Truk?). Subspecies accepted by Baker (1951), but if indeed introduced, validity questionable (Dickinson 2003).

L. castaneothorax Chestnut-breasted Mannikin
L. c. castaneothorax Int Society Is (Moorea, Tahiti, Bora Bora, Raiatea), Self-int? Marquesas Is (Hiva Oa, Tahuata, Motane).
L. c. subsp? Int New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Barre and Dutson 2000), Vanuatu (Espiritu Santo), Wallis and Futuna (Int 2007, prob from New Caledonia; Uvea, Thibault et al 2015).

L. melaena Buff-bellied Black Mannikin
L. m. bukaensis Res Solomon Is (Buka).

L. oryzivora Java Sparrow
NOTE: Sometimes included in separate genus Padda.
Int Fiji (Viti Levu; extirp Vanua Levu, Taveuni), Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Hawaii, Kauai, Molokai, Pyle and Pyle 2009).


PASSERIDAE (2 species)

Passer domesticus House Sparrow
P. d. domesticus Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is; one record each Kure, Midway, French Frigate, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Marshall Is (Kwajalein, Amerson 1969), Vanuatu (Efate), New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Barre and Dutson 2000), Norfolk I, NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Snares Is <14 inds (Miskelly et al 2001), Easter I, Guadalupe I. Acc Revillagigedo Is (Socorro), Campbell I, Auckland Is, Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002).

P. montanus Eurasian Tree Sparrow
P. m. subsp? Int Mariana Is (Guam, Saipan, Tinian, Rota), Palau (only since 2000; Peleliu, Koror, Malakal, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (Yap, Pohnpei- Pratt et al 2010), Marshall Is (Kwajalein). Acc Solomon Is (single recs Malaita and Guadalcanl likely ship-assisted).


MOTACILLIDAE (12 species)

Dendronanthus indicus Forest Wagtail
Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.

Motacilla tschutschensis Eastern Yellow-Wagtail
NOTE: Taxonomy of this species group is in flux. It is generally believed that eastern forms, including those that are thought to have occurred in the western Pacific Region, are part of a group of taxa, perhaps species themselves, but for now perhaps best considered subspecies of eastern M. t. tschutschensis. Although Christidis and Boles (2008) accepted as species on the Australian list M. tschutschensis Eastern Yellow Wagtail and M. taivana Green-headed Yellow Wagtail, genetic studies (Alström and Mild 2003; Ödeen and Björklund 2003) found insufficient difference to warrant specific status.
M. t. tschutschensis? (including simillima) Vis Sep-Apr Iwo Is, Mariana Is (Rota, Guam, Wiles et al 2000), Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Clements 2003, Truk). Acc Solomon Is (Nov Bougainville, Mayr and Diamond 2001, Hadden 2004a).
M. t. subsp (other than tschutschensis; possibly including taivana, macronyx, and thunbergi) Vis Oct-Apr Mariana Is (Rota, Guam- Wiles et al 2000), Palau, Caroline Is (Yap- Clements 2003, Truk). Acc Norfolk I (Dec 2002, Moore).

M. cinerea Grey Wagtail
M. c. robusta Vis Oct and Mar-Apr Palau (Pratt et al 2010 cite only 3 recs), Mariana Is (Guam), s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.

M. alba White Wagtail
M. a. subsp.? Cas Palau (Engbring 1988, Pyle and Engbring 1985; but see Pratt et al 1987: report not separable from "equally likely" M. lugens Black-backed Wagtail. Two records, Pratt and Etpison 2008). Hypo Mariana Is (Guam, Pyle and Engbring 1985).

M. lugens Black-backed Wagtail
NOTE: Recent authors treat as conspecific with M. alba (for example AOU 2005).
Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. (see M. alba).

Anthus richardi Richard's Pipit
Acc Palau (Babelthuap; photo, Pratt and Etpison 2008).

A. novaeseelandiae New Zealand Pipit
NOTE: This taxon, A. australis, A. richardi, A. cinnamomeus, and A. rufulus are sometimes considered conspecific (Richard's Pipit). Allozyme separation distances indicate that novaeseelandiae may be distinct at the species level from the 3 island taxa following (Foggo et al 1997), whereas Holdaway et al (2001) suspect that the island forms may be the result of "convergent evolution which has resulted in separately derived island forms that are superficially similar".
A. n. novaeseelandiae Res NZ (SI, Stewart I).
A. n. reischeki Res NZ (NI).
A. n. chathamensis Res NZ (Chatham Is).
A. n. aucklandicus NOTE: Thompson et al (2005) noted that birds of Campbell I appear much yellower than those on Auckland Is, suggesting further study on their taxonomic status.
Res Auckland Is, Campbell I (extirpated main Campbell I, but returning from offshore rat-free islets after rat eradication, Thompson et al 2005).
A. n. steindachneri Res Antipodes Is 1000-4000 inds (Tennyson et al 2002).
A. n. subsp? Cas Kermadec Is, Snares Is. Acc Apr and Dec Norfolk I, Sep Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).

A. hodgsoni Olive-backed Pipit
A. h. hodgsoni Acc Iwo Is.
A. h. yunnanensis? Acc Hawaiian Is (Sep-Oct 1983 Kure, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

A. gustavi Pechora Pipit
A. g. subsp.? Acc Iwo Is (Kita-iwojima).

A. cervinus Red-throated Pipit
Cas Mar-Apr Palau (3 recs, Pratt et al 2010). Acc Caroline Is (Yap Mar, Pratt et al 2010; Pyle and Pyle 2009), Hawaiian Is (Sep 1963 and Sep 1983, Kure, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Iwo Is (Kita-iwojima).

A. rubescens Buff-bellied (American) Pipit
A. r. japonicus Acc s Izu Is (Torishima), Iwo Is (Kita-iwojima), Hawaiian Is (Oct 1963 Kure, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
A. r. rubescens Acc Clipperton I Pyle and Pyle 2009).
A. r. subsp? Vis Nov-Feb Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is. Acc Cocos I (Easley and Montoya 2006).

A. spinoletta Water Pipit
A. s. spinoletta Acc Hawaiian Is (fall Kure).


FRINGILLIDAE (48 species)

Inclusion of Drepanidid finches here rather than in their own family follows Boyd (http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List29.html#fringillidae). Sequence used here for Drepanidids follows Pyle and Pyle (2009). Subfamilies included here are Fringillinae, with genus Fringilla, and Carduelinae, with tribes Coccothraustini (genera Euphona and Coccothraustes, Drepanidini (multiple genera), Pyrrhulini (genus Chaunoproctus), Burricini (genus Burrica, species included here formerly part of Carpodacus), and Carduelini (genera Chloris, Acanthis, Loxia, Carduelis, and Serinus.

Fringilla coelebs Chaffinch
F. c. subsp? Int NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Snares Is 20-30 ins (Miskelly et al 2001), Auckland Is, Campbell I. Cas Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004). Acc Dec Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002), Kermadec Is (Nov Macauley I, Veitch et al 2004), Norfolk I (Phillip I, Clarke 2001), Macquarie I Nov 2002 (R. Clarke).

F. montifringilla Brambling
Cas winter s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.

Euphona migratoria Chinese Grosbeak
E. m. migratoria Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).

E. personata Japanese Grosbeak
E. p. personata Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).

Coccothraustes coccothraustes Hawfinch
C. c. japonicus Cas s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is. Acc Iwo Is (Iwojima).

Telespiza cantans Laysan Finch
Res Hawaiian Is (Laysan 7000-20,000 inds, Pyle and Pyle 2009; int Pearl and Hermes Reef 400+ inds, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

T. ultima Nihoa Finch
Res Hawaiian Is (Nihoa 3200 inds, variable, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Psittirostra psittacea Ou
Extinct? Formerly res Hawaiian Is (last confirmed reports Hawaii 1986, Maui 1901, Oahu 1893, Molokai 1907, Lanai 1931, Kauai 1989, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Dysmorodrepanis munroi Lanai Hookbill
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Lanai; one specimen only).

Loxioides bailleui Palila
Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii 2000-6000 inds, declining 2004-2008, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Rhodacanthis flaviceps Lesser Koa-Finch
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, last 1891, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

R. palmeri Greater Koa-Finch
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, last 1896, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Chloridops kona Kona Grosbeak
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, last 1892, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Pseudonestor xanthophrys Maui Parrotbill
Res Hawaiian Is (Maui 500 inds).

Chlorodrepanis virens Hawaii Amakihi
H. v. wilsoni Res Hawaiian Is (Maui 46,800 inds, Molokai 1800 inds; extirp Lanai; Pyle and Pyle 2009).
H. v. virens Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii 870,000 inds, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

C. flavus (=chloris) Oahu Amakihi
NOTE: Pyle (2002) used the epithet flavus, based on Olson (1996).
Res Hawaiian Is (Oahu 52,000 inds, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

C. stejnegeri Kauai Amakihi
NOTE: Use of stejnegeri rather than kauaiensis is correct unless Amakihis are included in Hemignathus (Pyle and Pyle 2009).
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai 51000 inds, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Viridonia sagittirostris Greater Amakihi
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, last recorded 1902, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Akialoa obscura Lesser Akialoa
NOTE: Pratt (in Scott et al 2001) discusses the Akialoas, including difference at the generic level from Hemignathus as Akialoa. Apparent sympatry, based on palaeontological evidence, indicated five species, three of which are currently considered subspecies of A. ellisiana (below); all are now extinct (Olson and James 1995): Akialoa obscura Hawaii Akialoa, A. lanaiensis Maui Nui Akialoa, A. ellisiana Oahu Akialoa, A. stejnegeri Kauai Akialoa, and A. upupirostris Hoopoe-billed Akialoa.
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, last 1903, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

A. ellisiana Greater Akialoa
A. e. stejnegeri (=procerus) (for use of stejnegeri see Dickinson (2003). Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Kauai, last 1967, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
A. e. lanaiensis Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Lanai, last 1894, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
A. e. ellisiana Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Oahu, last 1892, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Hemignathus lucidus Nukupuu
NOTE: There are no confirmed records from (Big Island) Hawaii (Pyle and Pyle 2009).
H. l. affinis Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Maui, reports since 1899 likely incorrect, Pyle and Pyle 2009, despite 2001 estimate of <10 inds?, Reynolds and Snetsinger, in Scott et al 2001).
H. l. hanapepe Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Kauai, reports since 1899 likely incorrect, Pyle and Pyle 2009, despite 2001 estimate of <10 inds, Reynolds and Snetsinger, in Scott et al 2001).
H. l. lucidus Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Oahu, last 1860, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

H. wilsoni Akiapolaau
NOTE: As stated by Boyd: "However, portions of Hemignathus have been split off as Chlorodrepanis and Viridonia. This has allowed restoration of the name Hemignathus wilsoni for the Akiapolaau."
Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii 2100 inds, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Magumma parvus Anianiau
NOTE: Evidence suggests this taxon is separate at the generic level (Pratt, in Scott et al 2001; AOU 2008).
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai, 37,500 inds, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Oreomystis bairdi Akikiki (Kauai Creeper)
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai, 1300-3500 inds, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Manucerthia mana Hawaii Creeper
NOTE: A case can be made for retention in Loxops (Pyle and Pyle 2009).
Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii 12,500 inds).

Paroreomyza maculata Oahu Alauahio (Oahu Creeper)
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Oahu, last confirmed record 1968, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

P. flammea Kakawahie (Molokai Creeper)
Extinct (Reynolds and Snetsinger, in Scott et al 2001). Formerly res Hawaiian Is (Molokai, last 1963, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

P. montana Maui Alauahio (Maui Creeper)
P. m. newtoni Res Hawaiian Is (Maui 8550 prs, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
P. m. montana Extinct. Formerly res Hawaiian Is (Lanai, last 1937, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Loxops caeruleirostris Akekee
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai 7900 inds, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

L. coccineus Akepa
L. c. coccineus Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, 14,000 inds 1970s, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
L. c. ochraceus Extinct? Res Hawaiian Is (Maui <230 inds est 1986, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
L. c. wolstenholmei (=rufus) Extinct (Pyle 2002). Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Oahu, last 1901, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Ciridops anna Ulaaihawane
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, ?Molokai, last 1892, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Vestiaria coccinea Iiwi
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai 5400-7800 inds, Maui 19,000 inds, Hawaii 340,000 inds, Oahu poss extinct; extirp Lanai, specimen 1994 may have been visitor, Pyle and Pyle 2009; birds on Molokai, last reported 2004, may have been visitors from Maui, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Drepanis pacifica Hawaii Mamo
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, last 1898, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

D. funerea Black Mamo
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Molokai, last 1907 Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Palmeria dolei Akohekohe
Res Hawaiian Is (Maui 3800 inds 1980, Pyle and Pyle 2009; extirp? Molokai, last confirmed 1907, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Himatione sanguinea Apapane
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai 30,000 inds, Maui 110,000 inds, Hawaii 1,000,000 inds, Oahu 25,000 inds, Molokai 39,000 inds, Lanai few; acc Niihau, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

H. fraithii Laysan Honeycreeper
NOTE: Pratt (in Scott et al 2001) argues the case for species status, although Pyle and Pyle (2009) retain as subspecies of sanguinea. Spelling of specific epithet is discussed in Pyle and Pyle (2009).
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Laysan, last 1923 after island denuded of vegetation, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Melamprosops phaesoma Poouli
Extinct? Res Hawaiian Is (Maui 2-3 inds- N Am Birds 56:121, last 2004 Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Chaunoproctus ferreorostris Bonin Islands Grosbeak
Extinct. Res formerly Ogasawara Is.

Burricus mexicanus House Finch
B. m. amplus Res Guadalupe I.
B. m. frontalis Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is, cas 4 records NW Is: Midway, Nihoa, French Frigate, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Chloris chloris European Greenfinch
NOTE: Recent studies have indicated that traditional Carduelis is monophyletic, requiring retention of Chloris (see Christidis and Boles 2008).
C. c. subsp? Self-int Norfolk I (Christian 2005). Int NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is. Cas Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001), Kermadec Is (Apr-Nov, Veitch et al 2004). Acc May-Jul Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004, Hutton 1991), Campbell I.

C. sinica Oriental Greenfinch
C. s. kitlitzi Res Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.

Acanthis flammea Common Redpoll
NOTE: Recent studies have indicated that traditional Carduelis is monophyletic, requiring retention of Acanthis (see Christidis and Boles 2008).
A. f. flammea Acc Ogasawara Is (Jan Hahajima).
A. f. subsp? Acc Hawaiian Is (flammea? 3 records Nov-Mar Kure, Midway I, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Mar Vanuatu (Aneityum, Bregulla 1992; Tanna, Dutson 2011; prob from NZ).
A. f. subsp? The populations at the following locations are apparently a mix of A. f. cabaret and A. f. flammea, recently separated at the species level (Knox et al 2001) but subsequently returned to subspecific status (Ottvall et al 2003).
Int NZ (NI,SI, self-int Stewart I). Res (self-int) Kermadec Is, Chatham Is, Snares Is <100 inds, Antipodes Is, Auckland Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I. Cas Jun and Aug Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004).

Loxia curvirostra Red Crossbill
L. c. japonica Cas winter s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.
L. c. subsp? Cas Nov-Mar Guadalupe I (has bred).

Carduelis carduelis European Goldfinch
C. c. britannica Int NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Snares Is, Auckland Is, Norfolk I (Christian 2005). Cas Lord Howe I (11 recs, McAllan et al 2004), Kermadec Is (May-Sep, Veitch et al 2004). Acc Antipodes Is (Warham and Bell 1979, Imber 2004), Macquarie I (C. c. britannica-Tasmania PWS).

C. spinus Eurasian Siskin
Cas winter s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.

Serinus mozambicus Yellow-fronted Canary
S. m. barbatus? Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Hawaii).

S. canaria Island Canary
Int Hawaiian Is (Midway Is).


CALCARIIDAE (2 species)

Longspurs and Snow Bunting have been shown to be basal to the remaining Embirizids (see Boyd, http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List30.html).

Calcarius lapponicus Lapland Longspur
C. l. coloratus Acc Ogasawara Is.

Plectrophenax nivalis Snow Bunting
P. n. vlasowae Acc Ogasawara Is (Dec Chichijima).
P. n. townsendi Cas Hawaiian Is (6 recs through 2006, Oct-Mar, Kure, Midway, French Frigate, Pyle and Pyle 2009).