PARULIDAE (27 species)

Recent developments in taxonomy of this family are discussed by Boyd; species arrangement proposed by Boyd, based on the recent research, is followed here.

Seiurus aurocapilla Ovenbird
NOTE: This genus and the next appear to be basal to the remaining Parulinae (see Boyd).
Use of aurocapilla, a noun, is discussed by David and Gosselin (2002a).

S. a. subsp.? Cas Guadalupe I, Oct-Nov Clipperton I. Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Helmitheros vermivorus Worm-eating Warbler
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Mniotilta varia Black-and-white Warbler
NOTE: This and the next two species are placed in the tribe Vermivorini (see Boyd).
Acc Guadalupe I, Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Protonotaria citrea Prothonotary Warbler
Cas Clipperton I, Oct-Dec Revillagigedo Is. Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Vermivora chrysoptera Golden-winged Warbler
Acc Oct-Dec Clipperton I.

Wilsonia pusilla Wilson's Warbler
NOTE: This species and the next two are placed in the tribe Basileuterini.
W. p. subsp.? Acc Guadelupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).

W. canadensis Canada Warbler
Acc Nov Clipperton I.

Phaeothlypis fulvicauda Buff-rumped Warbler
NOTE: This species formerly placed in Basileuterus.
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

V. peregrina Tennessee Warbler
NOTE: This species, one of the "dull" Vermivora, is now placed in Geothlypini along with Oporornis and Geothlypis. The latter two genera are poorly-differentiated, and might best be combined as Geothlypis (Boyd).
Acc Oct-Nov Clipperton I, Cocos I (Montoya 2003), Revillagigedo Is (Apr Socorro, Jehl and Parkes 1982).

Geothlypis formosus Kentucky Warbler
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

G. philadelphia Mourning Warbler
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

G. agilis Connecticut Warbler
Acc Nov Clipperton I.

G. trichas Common Yellowthroat
G. t.subsp.? Cas Nov-Feb Guadalupe I Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I.

Parkesia noveboracensis Northern Waterthrush
NOTE: This and the following species constitute the tribe Parulini; this species, included in renamed Parkesia with Seiurus retained by Ovenbird, is basal to the remaining Parulini (Boyd). Generic names may need to be revised within Parulini.
Cas Oct-Feb Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Cocos I (Easley and Montoya 2006).

Parula pitiayumi Tropical Parula
P. p. graysoni Res Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).

Dendroica petechia Yellow Warbler
D. p. aureola Res Cocos I (Montoya 2012), Galapagos Is.
D. p. subsp? Cas Revillagigedo Is (Apr Socorro, castaneiceps or rhizophoroae; Apr Socorro, amnicola or rubiginosa, Jehl and Parkes 1982), Aug-Apr Clipperton I.

D. castanea Bay-breasted Warbler
Cas Clipperton I, Revillagigedo Is (Nov San Benedicto, Jehl and Parkes 1982). Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

D. striata Blackpoll Warbler
Cas Oct-Nov Clipperton I. Acc Galapagos Is (1976 Swash and Still 2005), Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

D. magnolia Magnolia Warbler
Acc Oct-Dec Clipperton I.

D. tigrina Cape May Warbler
Acc Nov-Apr Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).

D. coronata Myrtle Warbler
NOTE: Recent studies suggest separation of this and the next taxon.
Vis Oct-May Guadalupe I. Cas Revillagigedo Is (Apr San Benedicto, Jehl and Parkes 1982; Clarion, Wanless et al 2009). Acc (this subsp?) Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

D. auduboni Audubon's Warbler
Vis Oct-May Revillagigedo Is.

D. virens Black-throated Green Warbler
Cas Revillagigedo Is ( Apr Socorro, Jehl and Parkes 1982), Nov-Dec Clipperton I.

D. townsendi Townsend's Warbler
Cas Oct-Apr Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Apr Socorro, Jehl and Parkes 1982).

D. dominica Yellow-throated Warbler
D. d. subsp? Acc Clipperton I.

D. discolor Prairie Warbler
D. d. discolor? Acc Nov Clipperton I, Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

D. palmarum Palm Warbler
D. p. subsp.? Cas Revillagigedo Is, Oct-Apr Clipperton I. Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Setophaga ruticilla American Redstart
Cas Clipperton I, Aug-May Revillagigedo Is. Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

ICTERIDAE (9 species)

Icterus pectoralis Spot-breasted Oriole
I. p. subsp.? Int Cocos I. (Jaramillo and Burke 1999; Dean and Montoya 2005).

I. galbula Baltimore Oriole
Cas Cocos I (2 recs Apr, Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008b).

I. cucullatus Hooded Oriole
I. c. subsp.? Acc Revillagigedo Is (Feb Socorro); Guadalupe I.

Molothrus ater Brown-headed Cowbird
M. a. subsp? Cas Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Clarion, Brattstrom and Howell 1956, Wanless et al 2009). Acc far at sea: 350 mi off Oregon Coast (Sanger 1967: Condor 69:89).

Euphagus cyanocephalus Brewer's Blackbird
Acc Guadalupe I.

Quiscalus mexicanus Great-tailed Grackle
Q. m. subsp? Hypo Hawaiian Is (3 recs Oahu 1980-95, 1988-1995, 2011 considered likely ship-assisted, Pyle and Pyle 2009; but see AOU 1998).

Sturnella neglecta Western Meadowlark
Cas Guadelupe I. Int Hawaiian Is (Kauai).

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Yellow-headed Blackbird
Acc Revillagigedo Is (Socorro; Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

Dolichonyx oryzivorous Bobolink
Vis Apr Cocos I (Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008b), Oct-Dec (cas Jul-Aug) Galapagos Is. Cas Oct-Dec Clipperton I.

EMBERIZIDAE (4 species)

Emberiza citrinella Yellowhammer
E. c. subsp? Int NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Kermadec Is, Chatham Is (very rare Chatham and Pitt, may not be resident population, Aikman and Miskelly 2004). Cas Campbell I, Snares Is. Acc Aug Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).

E. cirlus Cirl Bunting
E. c. cirlus Int NZ (SI, cas NI).

E. aureola Yellow-breasted Bunting
E. a. ornata Acc Iwo Is (Kita-iwojima).

E. melanocephala Black-headed Bunting
Acc Palau.

PASSERELLIDAE (12 species)

Separation of these taxa as Passerellidae follows Boyd (

Passerella iliaca Fox Sparrow
P. i. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I.

Melospiza lincolnii Lincoln's Sparrow
M. l. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I.

Zonotrichia albicollis White-throated Sparrow
Acc Guadalupe I.

Z. atricapilla Golden-crowned Sparrow
Acc Guadalupe I.

Z. leucophrys White-crowned Sparrow
Z. l. subsp? Cas Nov-Mar Guadalupe I.

Junco hyemalis Dark-eyed Junco
J. h. oreganus Cas Oct-Apr Guadalupe I.

J. insularis Guadalupe Junco
NOTE: Some authors consider this taxon conspecific with J. hyemalis.
Res Guadalupe I 50-100 inds.

Passerculus sandwichensis Savannah Sparrow
P. s. subsp? Acc Hawaiian Is (Nov-Dec 1977 Kure, Oct 1980 French Frigate Shoals, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Spizella passerina Chipping Sparrow
S. p. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I.

Poocetes gramineus Vesper Sparrow
P. g. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I, Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).

Chondestes grammacus Lark Sparrow
C. g. subsp? Acc Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).

Pipilo maculatus Spotted Towhee
P. m. socorroensis Res Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).
P. m. consobrinus Extirp Guadalupe I.

CARDINALIDAE (7 species)

A report of Blue Bunting Cyanocompsa parellina from Cocos I is now considered indeterminate (Obando et al 2009).

Piranga rubra Summer Tanager
NOTE: This species and the next are of uncertain affinities, but placed here pending following Boyd (
P. r. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Socorro), Clipperton I, Galapagos Is (Espanola), Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

P. olivacea Scarlet Tanager
Acc Clipperton I.

Spiza americana Dickcissel
Cas Cocos I (2 recs, Nov 1983-Sep 1984 and Apr 2005, Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008b). Acc Clipperton I.

Pheucticus ludovicianus Rose-breasted Grosbeak
Cas Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Cocos I (Montoya 2003), Galapagos Is (Genovesa, Fernandina).

P. melanocephalus Black-headed Grosbeak
P. m. subsp.? Acc Guadalupe I.

Cardinalis cardinalis Northern Cardinal
C. c. canicaudus Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is, cas Nihoa 3 records, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Passerina caerulea Blue Grosbeak
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

P. cyanea Indigo Bunting
Acc Galapagos Is, Revillagigedo Is (Socorro), Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

P. ciris Painted Bunting
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

THRAUPIDAE (22 species)

Genera included here follow Boyd (

Coereba flaveola Bananaquit
NOTE: This species is basal to most of the Thraupidae and is sometimes placed in its own family.
Acc Galapagos Is (1 rec, Swash and Still 2005).

Tiaris olivaceus Yellow-faced Grassquit
NOTE: David and Gosselin (2002b) established that Tiaris is masculine.
T. o. pusillus Int Hawaiian Is (this subsp., Pyle and Pyle 2009, Oahu).

Certhidea olivacea Green Warbler Finch
NOTE: Recent studies (Freeland and Boag 1999) indicate that this taxon and the next involve two lineages which appear basal to the Darwin's finch assemblage, and are divergent at the species level. See discussion in Boyd (
Res Galapagos Is (San Salvador, Rabida, Seymour, Pinzon, Isabela, Fernandina, Santa Cruz).

C. fusca Gray Warbler Finch
C. f. mentalis Res Galapagos Is (Genovesa).
C. f. fusca Res Galapagos Is (Pinta, Marchena).
C. f. cinerascens Res Galapagos Is (Espanola).
C. f. becki Res Galapagos Is (Culpepper, Wenman).
C. f. bifasciata Res Galapagos Is (Santa Fe).
C. f. luteola Res Galapagos Is (San Cristobal).
C. f. ridgwayi Res Galapagos Is (Santa Maria).

Pinaroloxias inornata Cocos Finch
Res Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

Geospiza magnirostris Large Ground-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (except Culpepper, Seymour, Baltra, Espanola; extirp San Cristobal, Santa Maria? Santa Fe? Fernandina?

G. fortis Medium Ground-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (except Genovesa, Culpepper, Wenman; extirp Espanola?

G. fuliginosa Small Ground-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (except Genovesa, Culpepper, Wenman).

G. difficilis Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch
G. d. difficilis Res Galapagos Is (Genovesa, Pinta).
G. d. debilirostris Res Galapagos Is (San Salvador, Fernandina; extirp Isabela).
G. d. septentrionalis Res Galapagos Is (Culpepper, Wenman).
G. d. subsp? Extirp (extinct?) Galapagos Is (Santa Cruz, Santa Maria, San Salvador, Rabida, San Cristobal).

G. scandens Common Cactus-Finch
G. s. scandens Res Galapagos Is (San Salvador, Rabida).
G. s. intermedia Res Galapagos Is (Santa Fe, Santa Maria, Santa Cruz incl Baltra and Seymour, Isabela, San Cristobal; extirp Pinzon).
G. s. abingdoni Res Galapagos Is (Pinta).
G. s. rothschildi Res Galapagos Is (Marchena).

G. conirostris Large Cactus-Finch
G. c. conirostris Res Galapagos Is (Espanola).
G. c. propinqua Res Galapagos Is (Genovesa).
G. c. darwini Res Galapagos Is (Culpepper, Wenman).

Platyspiza crassirostris Vegetarian Finch
NOTE: Recent studies (Freeland and Boag 1999) suggest this taxon differs from Camarhynchus at the generic level.
Res Galapagos Is (Isabela, Fernandina, Santa Cruz, San Salvador, Santa Maria, Marchena, Pinta, Rabida; extirp Pinzon, Santa Fe?).

Camarhynchus psittacula Large Tree-Finch
C. p. habeli Res Galapagos Is (Pinta, Marchena).
C. p. affinis Res Galapagos Is (Isabela, Fernandina).
C. p. psittacula Res Galapagos Is (Seymour, Santa Fe, Santa Cruz, Santa Maria, Rabida, San Salvador; extirp Pinzon?).

C. pauper Medium Tree-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (Santa Maria).

C. parvulus Small Tree-Finch
C. p. parvulus Res Galapagos Is (San Salvador, Rabida, Santa Cruz, Seymour, Santa Fe, Isabela, Pinzon, Santa Maria, Fernandina).
C. p. salvini Res Galapagos Is (San Cristobal).

C. pallida Woodpecker Finch
NOTE: This and the next species sometimes placed in genus Cactospiza.
C. p. pallidus Res Galapagos Is (San Salvador, Rabida, Seymour, Pinzon, Sana Cruz, Santa Maria).
C. p. productus Res Galapagos Is (Isabela, Fernandina).
C. p. striatipectus Res Galapagos Is (San Cristobal).

C. heliobates Mangrove Finch
Res Galapagos Is (Isabela 35 prs; extirp Fernandina).

Diuca diuca Common Diuca-Finch
D. d. subsp? Int Easter I.

Paroaria coronata Red-crested Cardinal
Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

P. capitata Yellow-billed Cardinal
NOTE: This taxon is sometimes included in P. gularis Red-capped Cardinal (see Boyd
P. c. capitata? Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).

Ramphocelus dimidiatus Crimson-backed Tanager
R. d. subsp? Int Society Is (Tahiti).

Sicalis flaveola Saffron Finch
S. f. flaveola Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Oahu, Kauai,?Maui, Pyle and Pyle 2009).