Boyd found from recent genetic data (Alstrom et al 2008) that longspurs and Snow Bunting are separate from and basal to the remaining families in this checklist, which Boyd included in epifamily Icteroidae and Sibley and Monroe (1990) included in their Emberizinae. The relationships between these families is unsettled; since most are New World families, the family sequence of AOU (2016) is followed.

CALCARIIDAE (2 species)

Plectrophenax nivalis Snow Bunting
P. n. vlasowae Acc Ogasawara Is (Dec Chichijima).
P. n. townsendi Cas Hawaiian Is (6 recs through 2006, Oct-Mar, Kure, Midway, French Frigate, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Calcarius lapponicus Lapland Longspur
C. l. coloratus Acc Ogasawara Is.

PARULIDAE (28 species)

Recent developments in taxonomy of this family are discussed by Boyd; species sequence follows AOU (2016).

Seiurus aurocapilla Ovenbird
NOTE: This genus and the next Helmitheros are basal to the remaining Parulidae (see Boyd). Use of aurocapilla, a noun, is discussed by David and Gosselin (2002a).
S. a. subsp.? Cas Guadalupe I, Oct-Nov Clipperton I. Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Helmitheros vermivorus Worm-eating Warbler
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Parkesia noveboracensis Northern Waterthrush
Cas Oct-Feb Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Cocos I (Easley and Montoya 2006).

Vermivora chrysoptera Golden-winged Warbler
Acc Oct-Dec Clipperton I.

Mniotilta varia Black-and-white Warbler
Acc Guadalupe I, Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Protonotaria citrea Prothonotary Warbler
Cas Clipperton I, Oct-Dec Revillagigedo Is. Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Oreothlypis peregrina Tennessee Warbler
Acc Oct-Nov Clipperton I, Cocos I (Montoya 2003), Revillagigedo Is (Apr Socorro, Jehl and Parkes 1982).

Oporornis agilis Connecticut Warbler
Acc Nov Clipperton I.

Geothlypis formosus Kentucky Warbler
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

G. philadelphia Mourning Warbler
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

G. trichas Common Yellowthroat
G. t.subsp.? Cas Nov-Feb Guadalupe I Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I.

Setophaga ruticilla American Redstart
Cas Clipperton I, Aug-May Revillagigedo Is. Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

S. tigrina Cape May Warbler
Acc Nov-Apr Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).

S. pitiayumi Tropical Parula
P. p. graysoni Res Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).

S. magnolia Magnolia Warbler
Acc Oct-Dec Clipperton I.

S. castanea Bay-breasted Warbler
Cas Clipperton I, Revillagigedo Is (Nov San Benedicto, Jehl and Parkes 1982). Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

S. petechia Yellow Warbler
S. p. aureola Res Cocos I (Montoya 2012), Galapagos Is.
S. p. subsp? Cas Revillagigedo Is (Apr Socorro, castaneiceps or rhizophoroae; Apr Socorro, amnicola or rubiginosa, Jehl and Parkes 1982), Aug-Apr Clipperton I.

S. striata Blackpoll Warbler
Cas Oct-Nov Clipperton I. Acc Galapagos Is (1976 Swash and Still 2005), Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

S. palmarum Palm Warbler
S. p. subsp.? Cas Revillagigedo Is, Oct-Apr Clipperton I. Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

S. coronata Myrtle Warbler
NOTE: Recent studies suggest separation of this and the next taxon, S. auduboni.
Vis Oct-May Guadalupe I. Cas Revillagigedo Is (Apr San Benedicto, Jehl and Parkes 1982; Clarion, Wanless et al 2009). Acc (this subsp?) Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

S. auduboni Audubon's Warbler
Vis Oct-May Revillagigedo Is.

S. dominica Yellow-throated Warbler
S. d. subsp? Acc Clipperton I.

S. discolor Prairie Warbler
S. d. discolor? Acc Nov Clipperton I, Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

S. townsendi Townsend's Warbler
Cas Oct-Apr Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Apr Socorro, Jehl and Parkes 1982).

S. virens Black-throated Green Warbler
Cas Revillagigedo Is ( Apr Socorro, Jehl and Parkes 1982), Nov-Dec Clipperton I.

Myiothlypis fulvicauda Buff-rumped Warbler
NOTE: This species formerly placed in Basileuterus.
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Cardellina pusilla Wilson's Warbler
C. p. subsp.? Acc Guadelupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).

C. canadensis Canada Warbler
Acc Nov Clipperton I.

THRAUPIDAE (22 species)

Sequence of subfamilies and species generally follows AOU (2016), with help from Boyd.

Paroaria coronata Red-crested Cardinal
Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

P. capitata Yellow-billed Cardinal
NOTE: This taxon is sometimes included in P. gularis Red-capped Cardinal (Boyd).
P. c. capitata? Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).

Sicalis flaveola Saffron Finch
S. f. flaveola Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Oahu, Kauai,?Maui, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Diuca diuca Common Diuca-Finch
D. d. subsp? Int Easter I.

Ramphocelus dimidiatus Crimson-backed Tanager
R. d. subsp? Int Society Is (Tahiti).

Coereba flaveola Bananaquit
Acc Galapagos Is (1 rec, Swash and Still 2005).

Tiaris olivaceus Yellow-faced Grassquit
NOTE: David and Gosselin (2002b) established that Tiaris is masculine.
T. o. pusillus Int Hawaiian Is (this subsp., Pyle and Pyle 2009, Oahu).

Certhidea olivacea Green Warbler Finch
NOTE: Recent studies (Freeland and Boag 1999) indicate that this taxon and Gray Warbler-Finch C. fusca involve two lineages which appear basal to the Darwin's finch assemblage, and are divergent at the species level. See Boyd.
Res Galapagos Is (San Salvador, Rabida, Seymour, Pinzon, Isabela, Fernandina, Santa Cruz).

C. fusca Gray Warbler Finch
C. f. mentalis Res Galapagos Is (Genovesa).
C. f. fusca Res Galapagos Is (Pinta, Marchena).
C. f. cinerascens Res Galapagos Is (Espanola).
C. f. becki Res Galapagos Is (Culpepper, Wenman).
C. f. bifasciata Res Galapagos Is (Santa Fe).
C. f. luteola Res Galapagos Is (San Cristobal).
C. f. ridgwayi Res Galapagos Is (Santa Maria).

Platyspiza crassirostris Vegetarian Finch
NOTE: Recent studies (Freeland and Boag 1999) suggest this taxon differs from Camarhynchus at the generic level.
Res Galapagos Is (Isabela, Fernandina, Santa Cruz, San Salvador, Santa Maria, Marchena, Pinta, abida; extirp Pinzon, Santa Fe?).

Pinaroloxias inornata Cocos Finch
Res Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

Taxonomy of the remaining "Darwin's Finches" is complex. Herein, Boyd's careful analysis of these taxa is followed; Boyd merges Geospiza and Camarhynchus and suggests that three species pairs are closely-related and might be lumped, although the distributions of each pair are allopatric. Merges would involve conirostris into magnirostris, propinqua into scandens, and acutirostris into fortis.

G. difficilis Sharpe's Ground-Finch
G. d. difficilis Res Galapagos Is (Pinta).
G. d. debilirostris Res Galapagos Is (Santiago, Fernandina; extirp Isabela, Rabida).

G. d. subsp? Extirp Galapagos Is (Santa Cruz, Floreana, San Cristobal).

G. septentrionalis Vampire Ground-Finch
NOTE: This species is separated from G. difficilis (Lamprichhaney et al 2015).
Res Galapagos Is (Darwin, Wolf).
G. psittacula Large Tree-Finch
G. p. habeli Res Galapagos Is (Pinta, Marchena).
G. p. affinis Res Galapagos Is (Isabela, Fernandina).
G. p. psittacula Res Galapagos Is (Seymour, Santa Fe, Santa Cruz, Floreana, Santiago; extirp Rabida, Pinzon).

G. pauper Medium Tree-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (Floreana).

G. parvulus Small Tree-Finch
G. p. parvulus Res Galapagos Is (Santiago, Santa Cruz, Seymour, Santa Fe, Isabela, Pinzon, Floreana, Fernandina; extirp Rabida).
G. p. salvini Res Galapagos Is (San Cristobal).

G. heliobates Mangrove Finch
Res Galapagos Is (Isabela 35 prs; extirp Fernandina).

G. pallida Woodpecker Finch
G. p. pallidus Res Galapagos Is (Santiago, Rabida, Seymour, Pinzon, Santa Cruz, Floreana).
G. p. productus Res Galapagos Is (Isabela, ?Fernandina).
G. p. striatipectus Res Galapagos Is (San Cristobal).

G. fuliginosa Small Ground-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (except Genovesa, Darwin, Wolf).

G. acutirostris Genovesa Ground-Finch
NOTE: This species is separated from G. difficilis (Lamprichhaney et al 2015).
Res Galapagos Is (Genovesa).

G. fortis Medium Ground-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (except Genovesa, Darwin, Wolf; extirp Espanola?

G. conirostris Espanola Ground-Finch
G. c. conirostris Res Galapagos Is (Espanola).
G. c. darwini Res Galapagos Is (Darwin, Wolf).

G> magnirostris Large Ground-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (except Seymour, Baltra, Espanola; extirp San Cristobal, Floreana).

G. scandens Common Cactus-Finch
G. s. scandens Res Galapagos Is (Santiago, Rabida).
G. s. intermedia Res Galapagos Is (except Santiago, Rabida, Pinta, Marchena, Fernandina, Espanola, Genovesa, Darwin, Wolf; extirp Pinzon).
G. s. abingdoni Res Galapagos Is (Pinta).
G. s. rothschildi Res Galapagos Is (Marchena).

G. propinqua Genovesa Cactus-Finch
NOTE: This species was split from G. conirostris (Lamprichhaney et al 2015).
Res Galapagos Is (Genovesa).

EMBERIZIDAE (4 species)

Emberiza citrinella Yellowhammer
E. c. subsp? Int NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Kermadec Is, Chatham Is (very rare Chatham and Pitt, may not be resident population, Aikman and Miskelly 2004). Cas Campbell I, Snares Is. Acc Aug Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).

E. cirlus Cirl Bunting
E. c. cirlus Int NZ (SI, cas NI).

E. melanocephala Black-headed Bunting
NOTE: Boyd assigned this species the Melophus, based on putative genetic structure within Emberiza.
Acc Palau.

E. aureola Yellow-breasted Bunting
NOTE: Boyd assigned this species the Melophus, based on putative genetic structure within Emberiza.
E. a. ornata Acc Iwo Is (Kita-iwojima).

ARREMONIDAE (12 species)

Separation of these taxa as Arremonidae follows Barker et al (2013), who separated New World sparrows from Old World buntings. Arremonidae has precedence over Passerellidae (Boyd). The sequence proposed by Boyd is followed here.

Chondestes grammacus Lark Sparrow
C. g. subsp? Acc Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).

Spizella passerina Chipping Sparrow
S. p. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I.

Passerella iliaca Fox Sparrow
P. i. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I.

Junco hyemalis Dark-eyed Junco
J. h. oreganus Cas Oct-Apr Guadalupe I.

J. insularis Guadalupe Junco
NOTE: Some authors consider this taxon conspecific with J. hyemalis.
Res Guadalupe I 50-100 inds.

Zonotrichia albicollis White-throated Sparrow
Acc Guadalupe I.

Z. atricapilla Golden-crowned Sparrow
Acc Guadalupe I.

Z. leucophrys White-crowned Sparrow
Z. l. subsp? Cas Nov-Mar Guadalupe I.

Poocetes gramineus Vesper Sparrow
P. g. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I, Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).

Passerculus sandwichensis Savannah Sparrow
P. s. subsp? Acc Hawaiian Is (Nov-Dec 1977 Kure, Oct 1980 French Frigate Shoals, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

Melospiza lincolnii Lincoln's Sparrow
M. l. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I.

Pipilo maculatus Spotted Towhee
P. m. socorroensis Res Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).
P. m. consobrinus Extirp Guadalupe I.

CARDINALIDAE (9 species)

A report of Blue Bunting Cyanocompsa parellina from Cocos I is now considered indeterminate (Obando et al 2009).

Cardinalis cardinalis Northern Cardinal
C. c. canicaudus Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is, cas Nihoa 3 records, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

Piranga rubra Summer Tanager
P. r. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Socorro), Clipperton I, Galapagos Is (Espanola), Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

P. olivacea Scarlet Tanager
Acc Clipperton I.

Pheucticus ludovicianus Rose-breasted Grosbeak
Cas Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Cocos I (Montoya 2003), Galapagos Is (Genovesa, Fernandina).

P. melanocephalus Black-headed Grosbeak
P. m. subsp.? Acc Guadalupe I.

Spiza americana Dickcissel
Cas Cocos I (2 recs, Nov 1983-Sep 1984 and Apr 2005, Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008b). Acc Clipperton I.

Passerina caerulea Blue Grosbeak
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

P. cyanea Indigo Bunting
Acc Galapagos Is, Revillagigedo Is (Socorro), Cocos I (Montoya 2003).

P. ciris Painted Bunting
Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2012).

ICTERIDAE (9 species)

Dolichonyx oryzivorous Bobolink
Vis Apr Cocos I (Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008b), Oct-Dec (cas Jul-Aug) Galapagos Is. Cas Oct-Dec Clipperton I.

Sturnella neglecta Western Meadowlark
Cas Guadelupe I. Int Hawaiian Is (Kauai).

Icterus pectoralis Spot-breasted Oriole
I. p. subsp.? Int Cocos I. (Jaramillo and Burke 1999; Dean and Montoya 2005).

I. galbula Baltimore Oriole
Cas Cocos I (2 recs Apr, Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008b).

I. cucullatus Hooded Oriole
I. c. subsp.? Acc Revillagigedo Is (Feb Socorro); Guadalupe I.

Molothrus ater Brown-headed Cowbird
M. a. subsp? Cas Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Clarion, Brattstrom and Howell 1956, Wanless et al 2009). Acc far at sea: 350 mi off Oregon Coast (Sanger 1967: Condor 69:89).

Euphagus cyanocephalus Brewer's Blackbird
Acc Guadalupe I.

Quiscalus mexicanus Great-tailed Grackle
Q. m. subsp? Hypo Hawaiian Is (3 recs Oahu 1980-95, 1988-1995, 2011 considered likely ship-assisted, Pyle and Pyle 2009; one seen near Wahiawa, Oahu 20 Apr 2017, Vander Werf); but see AOU 1998).

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Yellow-headed Blackbird
Cas Revillagigedo Is (Socorro; Clarion, Wanless et al 2009), Cocos I (Montoya 2012).