COLUMBIDAE (79 species)

Based on the most recent DNA studies, we follow the arrangement proposed by Boyd, who separates the Columbidae into 8 tribes split among 3 subfamilies. Wihin these 8 tribes, 18 genera are represented in this Checklist.

Zenaida macroura Mourning Dove
Genetic relationships within this genus were studied by Johnson and Clayton (2000), and support the specific status of this and the following 2 taxa .
Z. m. clarionensis Res Revillagigedo Is (Clarion I).
Z. m. marginella Res (this subsp: Jehl and Parkes 1982) after 1971 Revillagigedo Is (Socorro I, Gibbs et al 2001). Acc Revillagigedo Is (Apr San Benedicto, Jehl and Parkes 1982).
Z. m. subsp? Res Guadalupe I. Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii 500-1500 inds 1974; cas, probably self-establishing, Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Kauai, Kahoolawe, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Clipperton I.

Z. graysoni Socorro Dove
Extirpated Revillagigedo Is (Socorro I). Extant in captivity only.

Z. galapagoensis Galapagos Dove
Z. g. galapagoensis Res Galapagos Is except Culpepper and Wenman.
Z. g. exsul Res Galapagos Is (Culpepper, Wenman).

Z. asiatica White-winged Dove
Z. a. mearnsi? Acc Guadalupe I.

Z. auriculata Eared Dove
Z. a. subsp? Acc Galapagos Is.

Reinwardtoena crassirostris Crested Long-tailed Pigeon
Res Solomon Is except Rennell and Santa Cruz Is.

Macropygia mackinlayi Mackinlay's Cuckoo-Dove
M. m. troughtoni (sometimes included in mackinlayi) Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is, Mayr 1945).
M. m. arossi Res Solomon Is incl Nissan (Tarburton 2006), but not Santa Cruz Is.
M. m. mackinlayi Res Vanuatu.

Streptopelia risorea Barbary (African Collared-) Dove
NOTE: Established populations generally referred to as "Barbary Dove" are probably domesticated forms; some authors use S. roseogrisea (see Christidis and Boles 2008, OSNZ 2010).
Int NZ (NI, Heather and Robinson 1996).

S. orientalis Rufous Turtle-Dove
S. o. orientalis Res s Izu Is (Torishima). Acc Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima).

S. chinensis Spotted Dove
S. c. tigrina Int New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Barre and Dutson 2000), Fiji (most islands but not Kadavu, Watling 2001), NZ (NI). Acc Apr Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).
S. c. chinensis Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009).
S. c. subsp? Acc Apr Lord Howe I.

S. bitorquata Philippine Turtle-Dove
S. b. dusumieri Int Mariana Is (Guam to Saipan, poss Medinilla, Reichel and Glass 1991).

Columba livia Rock Pigeon
Int Mariana Is (Guam, Rota, Tinian, Saipan, extirp Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Hawaiian Is (SE Is; cas NW Is, extirpated Midway, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Marshall Is (Ebon, Jaluit, Spenneman and Benjamin 2004; Majuro, Trevor), Nauru (since 1990s, Buden 2008), New Caledonia (Noumea, Dutson 2011), Vanuatu (Santo, Ewin 2004; Efate, Dutson 2011); Fiji (most large towns), Marquesas Is (Ua Huka), Society Is (Borabora, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahiti), Tuamotu Arch (Makatea, Mangareva), Wallis and Futuna (Thibault et al 2015), Samoa (Savaii, Upolu, McAllan and Hobcroft 2005), Cook Is (?Palmerston, Holyoak 1980), Norfolk I, Lord Howe I (rare; McAllan et al 2004), NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Juan Fernandez Is, Easter I, Galapagos Is (around human habitation, Swash and Still 2005). Cas? Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006). Acc Nov Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002), Cocos I (Montoya 2012). Not established Caroline Is (Pratt et al 2010, Hayes et al 2016).

C. janthina Japanese Wood-Pigeon
C. j. nitens Res Ogasawara Is (Chichijima, 50 inds, Yamaoka 2007, Japan Times); Formerly res Iwo Is (Gibbs et al 2001).
C. j. janthina Res s Izu Is (Torishima).

C. versicolor Bonin Wood-Pigeon
Extinct. Formerly res Ogasawara Is.

C. vitiensis Metallic (White-throated) Pigeon
C. v. halmaheira Res Solomon Is incl Bougainville (except Choiseul, Rennell, Bellona).
C. v. leopoldi Res Vanuatu (except Gaua, Dutson 2011).
C. v. hypoenochroa Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Is).
C. v. vitiensis Res Fiji.
C. v. castaneiceps Res Samoa (Upolu, Savaii).
C. v. godmanae Extinct. Formerly res Lord Howe I.

C. pallidiceps Yellow-legged Pigeon
Res Solomon Is (Bougainville, Choiseul, Florida Is, Makira, Guadalcanal, Ramos I off Santa Isabel, Gower I off Ndai I; recent records only Guadalcanal, Makira, Dutson 2011).

Columbina passerina Common Ground-Dove
C. p. socorroensis Res Revillagigedo Is (Socorro I). Acc (this subsp.?) Revillagigedos Is (Clarion, Wanless et al 2009).

NOTE: The following species of ground-doves were previously placed in Gallicolumba, but genetic analyses by Jonsson et al (2011) and Moyle et al (2013) showed that Gallicolumba was paraphyletic; thus the ground-doves are separated into the genus Alopecoenas.

Alopecoenas jobiensis White-breasted Ground-Dove
NOTE: Although based on a single specimen, the distinctive female plumage (Mayr and Diamond 2001) suggests A. j. chalconota may warrant specific status.
A. j. chalconota Res Solomon Is (4 specimens and one sighting; Vella Lavella, ?Ghizo, Guadalcanal, Makira, Dutson 2011).

A. kubaryi Caroline Islands Ground-Dove
Res Caroline Is fewer than 1000 (Truk, Pohnpei).

A. erythroptera Polynesian Ground-Dove
NOTE: Limited specimens suggest possibility of at least 2 subspecies (Gibbs et al 2001).
Res Tuamotu Arch (Rangiroa, Maturei-Vavao, Gibbs et al 2001, Tenararo, Morane 12 inds, Forest and Bird Aug 2005; extirp remainder Tuamotu Arch). Extirpated Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea). Said to have been introduced to Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Abemama, Amerson 1969) from Nauru, but almost certainly another species or hybrid population based on description given by Child (1960) .
A. xanthonura White-throated Ground-Dove
Res Mariana Is 3000 inds, throughout except Maug, Uracas, but most Rota; Guam 550 inds 1981 but now extirp, Reichel and Glass (1991), Caroline Is (Yap 3000 inds, Gibbs et al 2001).

A. stairi Friendly Ground-Dove
A. s. vitiensis Res Fiji, Tonga (Hungas, Late, Fonualei, Watling 2001), Wallis and Futuna (Alofa- extirpated, Thibault et al 2015), ?Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Abemama, int 1940 from Fiji, Amerson 1969, current status unknown, Gibbs et al 2002), ?Marshall Is (Spennemann and Benjamin 2004).
A. s. stairi Res Samoa (Upolu, Nu'utele, Nu'ulua, Savaii, Ofu, Olosega, Freifeld et al 2001, Parrish and Sherley 2012).

A. sanctaecrucis Santa Cruz Ground-Dove
Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is: Tinakula, Utupua, Nendo, Dutson 2011), Vanuatu (Espiritu Santo).

A. ferruginea Tanna Ground-Dove
NOTE: May have been subsp of A. sanctaecrucis.
Extinct. Formerly Res Vanuatu (Tanna: one specimen).

A. norfolciensis Norfolk Ground-Dove
NOTE: No specimens extant; described female suggested applicable to Chalcophaps indica (Sibley and Monroe 1990), but bones found recently have been attributed to a species of Gallicolumba (now Alopecoenas) (Gibbs et al 2001). See also discussion in Schodde et al (2007) and Christidis and Boles (2008); application has been made to suppress norfolciensis (Schodde et al 2007).
Extinct. Formerly res Norfolk I.

A. salamonis Thick-billed Ground-Dove
Extinct? Formerly res Solomon Is (2 specimens only records; Malaita, Makira, Ramos I).

A. rubescens Marquesas Ground-Dove
Res Marquesas Is (Fatuhuku small popn, Hatutu 200-250 inds).

A. beccarii Grey-breasted Ground-Dove
A. b. masculinaRes Solomon Is (Nissan, Hadden 2004b).
A. b. intermedia Res w Solomon Is (Bougainville but not Buka, Hadden 2004a, Choiseul, Kolombangara, Ghizo, New Georgia; no recent recs last two locations, Dutson 2001).
A. b. solomonensis Res e Solomon Is (Gower I off Ndai I, Guadalcanal, Makira, Three Sisters Is, Santa Ana, Rennell, Bellona).

A. canifrons Palau Ground-Dove
Res Palau (islands s of Koror incl Peleliu 500 inds, v rare Babeldaob).

Geopelia striata Zebra Dove
NOTE: The 6 subspecies are usually separated into 3 groups which have been more recently treated as species (Gibbs et al 2001): monotypic G. maugeus Barred Dove, monotypic G. striata Zebra Dove, and polytypic G. placida Peaceful Dove. This is followed here.
Int Hawaiian Is (SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009), New Caledonia (Grande Terre- Noumea, La Foa, Dutson 2011, Barre and Dutson 2000), Society Is (Tahiti), Marquesas Is (Hiva Oa, Chester et al 1998). Acc Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).

Phaps elegans Brush Bronzewing
P. e. subsp? Acc Oct Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004, Hutton 1991; ?"seems extraordinary", HANZAB).

Microgoura meeki Choiseul Pigeon
Extinct? Res Solomon Is (Choiseul).

Didunculus strigirostris Tooth-billed Pigeon
Res <2500 inds (Watling 2001) Samoa (Upolu, Savaii; absent Nuutele, Parrish and Sherley 2012).

Caloenas nicobarica Nicobar Pigeon
C. n. pelewensis Res 1000 inds Palau.
F: Palau (on remoter islands, Gibbs et al 2001; most on limestone islands s of Koror, uncommon, Engbring 1988; Peleliu: 6 over main north-south track dusk, Talbot; from Bloody Nose Ridge Tower, Klauber; Rock Is: Long Lake, Watson).
C. n. nicobarica Res Solomon Is (Nissan, no records since 1970, Hadden 2004b, Nuguria, Tarburton 2006, Bougainville, Buka (Gregory), Rennell, Ontong Java, Ndai, but not Makira or many islands in eastern Solomons, Dutson 2011). Acc Caroline Is (apparently this subsp., Pohnpei Nov 2009, Buden et al 2010).

Treron sieboldii Japanese Green Pigeon
T. s. sieboldii Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima).

Chalcophaps longirostris Pacific Emerald Dove
This taxon and C. stephani, including birds in eastern Australia and the sw. Pacific, are now generally considered specifically separate from c. indica. The name longirostris has precedence over chrysoclora (David James post to BIRDING-AUS 2011; Penhallurick-
C. l. rogersi Res Lord Howe I, Norfolk I.
C. l. sandwichensis Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is), Vanuatu including Banks Is, New Caledonia (Loyalty Is, Dutson 2011).
C. l. chrysoclora Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Dutson 2011).

C. stephani Brown-backed (Stephan's) Dove
C. s. mortoni Res Solomon Is incl Nissan (Tarburton 2006), Buka, Bougainville, but not Rennell and Santa Cruz Is.

Ducula pacifica Pacific Pigeon
NOTE: Current opinion separates this species into only 2 subspecies, western D. p. sejuncta, found north of Papua New Guinea, and D. p. pacifica, which occupies the remainder of the range (Gibbs et al 2001; Bregulla 1992). Thus subspecies listed below may be based only on individual variation (Gibbs et al 2001).
D. p. tarrali Res Vanuatu.
D. p. pacifica Res Solomon Is (Rennell, Bellona, Florida Is incl Buena Vista, Savo, Three Sisters Is, Nissan, Nukumanu, Sikaiana, Ontong Java, Gower I off Ndai I, Ramos I off Makira, Santa Cruz Is), Vanuatu (Dutson 2011), Tuvalu, Kiribati (Phoenix Is), Wallis and Futuna (Thibault et al 2015), Tokelau, Tonga (incl Niuafoou, Rinke 1986), Cook Is (Pukapuka, Palmerston, Atiu, Mitiaro, Mauke, Rarotonga, Holyoak 1980), Niue. Vis New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Is: Lifou, Ouvea, ?Walpole, Barre and Dutson 2000).
D. p. intensitincta Res Fiji (except Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Kadavu).
D. p. microcera Res Samoa.

D. oceanica Micronesian Pigeon
D. o. monacha May not be separable from teraokai. Res Caroline Is (Yap), Palau (Babelthuap, Koror, Rock Is, Angaur), Nauru (75-100 inds, Buden 2008; Engbring et al 1990).
D. o. teraokai Res Caroline Is (Truk: Tol, Moen, Satawan Atoll; extirpated? Lukunor (Buden 2006), Nukuoro, Moen).
D. o. townsendi Res Caroline Is (Pohnpei).
D. o. oceanica Res Caroline Is (Kosrae, Hayes et al 2016), Marshall Is (Jaluit, Ailinglaplap, Gibbs et al 2001), ?Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Kuria, Aranuka, Gibbs et al 2002).
D. o. ratakensis
Smaller, but may not be distinguishable from oceanica (Gibbs et al 2001), especially as there have probably been introductions or escapes of oceanica (pers. comm. Michael Trevor).
Res Marshall Is (Arno, Wotje, Majuro where 9 birds early 1990s to 30 in 2008 pers. comm. M. Trevor).

D. aurorae Polynesian Pigeon
D. a. aurorae Res Tuamotu Arch (Makatea 100-150 inds).
D. a. wilkesii Res Society Is (Tahiti 10 inds, extirp Moorea).

D. galeata Nukuhiva Pigeon
Res Marquesas Is (Nukuhiva 140 inds, Forest and Bird Aug 2005). Reint Ua Huka 18 inds (Blanvillain and Thorsen 2003, Forest and Bird Aug 2005).

D. rubricera Red-knobbed Pigeon
D. r. rufigula Res Solomon Is incl Buka and Bougainville except Rennell, Santa Cruz Is.

D. pistrinaria Island Pigeon
D. p. pistrinaria Res Solomon Is (Nissan, Buka, Bougainville, east to Makira but not Rennell, Gower, Ndai, Ontong Java, Bellona, Santa Cruz Is, Dutson 2011).

D. latrans Peale's (Barking) Pigeon
Res Fiji (except smaller islands, but present Vatulele, n Lau Arch; extirp Lomaiviti, the only site of occurrence known in s Lau Arch, Watling 2001).

D. brenchleyi Chestnut-bellied Pigeon
Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Makira and offshore islets, Malaita).

D. bakeri Vanuatu (Baker's) Pigeon
Res n Vanuatu <10,000 inds incl Banks Is and s to Ambrym but not Malekula.

D. goliath New Caledonia Pigeon
Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Ile des Pins).

D. spilorrhoa Torresian Pigeon
NOTE: Some authors consider this a subspecies of D. bicolor Pied Imperial-Pigeon (Gibbs et al 2001; Christidis and Boles 2008). Within spilorrhoa, Australian birds have been separated (doubtfully? HANZAB) from those of New Guinea as melvillensis.
D. s. melvillensis Acc Lord Howe I (2 recs, McAllan et al 2004; HANZAB).

Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae New Zealand Pigeon
NOTE: HANZAB recommended this and the following two taxa be treated as separate species based on allopatric distributions and differences in ecology and morphology; see also Millener and Powlesland (2001). Christidis and Boles (2008) noted that a good case for species status for spadicea has yet to be made, however. A humerus from Raoul Island was recently shown to be indistinguishable from H. novaeseelandiae (Worthy and Brassey 2000).
Res NZ (NI incl offshore is, SI, Stewart I). Extirpated Kermadec Is (Raoul I, Veitch et al 2004).

H. chathamensis Chatham Island Pigeon
Res Chatham Is (Chatham I 150+ inds, Aikman and Miskelly 2004, Flux et al 2001; with conservation efforts 600 inds 2009, Dilks et al 2010; reint Rangatira/South East I, 2 inds, Pitt a few inds, Aikman and Miskelly 2004).

H. spadicea Norfolk Island Pigeon
Extinct. Res formerly Norfolk I.

Gymnophaps solomonensis Pale Mountain-Pigeon
Res Solomon Is (Bougainville, Kolombangara, Vanggunu, Guadalcanal, Malaita).

NOTE: Drepanoptila represents an early radiation from the New Guinea area, and shares some characteristics with Ptilinopus (Cibois et al 2013); Boyd included it within Ptilinopus. Chrysoena is included in Ptilinopus also, based on Cibois et al (2013).

Ptilinopus victor Orange Dove
This species and the next two represent an early radiation from the New Guinea area (Cibois et al 2013).
P. v. victor Res Fiji (Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Kioa, Rabi).
P. v. aureus Res Fiji (Qamea, Laucala-are intermediate, poss closer to aureus Gibbs et al 2001, Matagi).

P. luteovirens Golden Dove
Res Fiji (Viti Levu, Ovalau, Beqa, Weya Group, Gau).

P. layardi Whistling (Yellow-headed) Dove
Res Fiji (Kadavu, Ono; est 10,000 inds, Masibalavu and Dutson 2006).

P. holosericea Cloven-feathered Dove
Res New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Ile des Pins, Barre and Dutson 2000, Dutson 2011).

P. superbus Superb Fruit-Dove
This species and the next 4 represent a radiation from the New Guinea area (Cibois et al 2013).
P. s. superbus Res Solomon Is incl Nissan (Tarburton 2006), but not Makira, Ugi Is, Ulawa, or Rennell (Dutson 2011).

P. solomonensis Yellow-bibbed Fruit-Dove
P. s. neumanni Res Solomon Is (Nissan, Pinipel, Tarburton 2006).
P. s. bistictus Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is).
P. s. vulcanorum Res Solomon Is (Vella Lavella, Ganongga, Kohinggo, New Georgia, Vangunu, Ngatokae, Kolombangara, Rendova, Florida Is).
P. s. ocularis Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).
P. s. ambiguus Res Solomon Is (Malaita).
P. s. solomonensis Res Solomon Is (Makira, Ugi, Three Sisters Is).

P. tannensis Vanuatu Fruit-Dove
Res Vanuatu incl Banks Is.

P. viridis Red-bibbed Fruit-Dove
P. v. lewisii Res Solomon Is (Buka and Bougainville e to Guadalcanal and Malaita, except Makira and Ramos I; reports from Nissan considered incorrect, Hadden 2004b).

P. eugeniae White-headed Fruit-Dove
NOTE: Sometimes considered conspecific with P. viridis.
Res Solomon Is (Makira, Ugi Is, Three Sisters Is, Santa Ana, Santa Catalina).

P. regina Rose-crowned Fruit-Dove
This species and those following represent radiations from within the Pacific (Cibois et al 2013).
P. p. subsp? Acc Norfolk I Sep-Oct 1980 (Hermes; Watola).

P. dupetithouarsii White-capped Fruit-Dove
P. d. viridior Res n Marquesas Is (Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka, Ua Pu).
P. d. dupetithouarsii Res s Marquesas Is (Hiva Oa, Tahuata, Mohotani 200-300 inds, Fatuhiva).

P. mercierii Red-moustached Fruit-Dove
P. m. mercierii Extinct? Formerly res Marquesas Is (Nukuhiva).
P. m. tristrami Extinct? Formerly res Marquesas Is (Hiva Oa).

P. ponapensis Purple-capped Fruit-Dove
NOTE: The birds on Chuuk and Pohnpei are considered separate at the species level from those on Kosrae (Hayes et al 2016) as Purple-capped Fruit-Dove. Sometimes included in ponapensis or hernsheimi, but see Hayes et al 2016).
Res Caroline Is (Truk, Pohnpei, Hayes et al 2016).

P. hernsheimi Kosrae Fruit-Dove
NOTE: This species was shown to be distinct mensurally, morphologically, and vocally from P. ponapensis by Hayes et al 2016).

P. greyi Grey's (Red-bellied) Fruit-Dove
Res Solomon Is (Gower I off Ndai I, Santa Cruz Is, Reef Is), Vanuatu, New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Is).

P. porphyraceus Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove
P. p. fasciatus Res Samoa (Upolu, Savaii, Tutuila).
P. p. graeffei
NOTE: Possibly hybrid of porphyraceus and fasciatus (Pratt and Mittermeier 2016).
Res Wallis and Futuna (Uvea, Futuna, Alofi, Thibault et al 2015), Tonga (Niuafoou, Rinke 1986).
P. p. porphyraceus Res Tonga (except Niuafoou), Fiji (restricted to small islands throughout), Rotuma, Niue.
P. p. marshallianus
NOTE: Sometimes included in ponapensis or hernsheimi, but see Hayes et al 2016).
Extinct. Known from a single specimen collected 1859. Formerly res Marshall Is (Ebon).

P. pelewensis Palau Fruit-Dove
NOTE: Sometimes considered a subspecies within porphyraceus, but see Pratt et al (1980).
Res Palau.

P. richardsii Silver-capped Fruit-Dove
P. r. richardsii (=rhodostictus) Res Solomon Is (Santa Ana, Santa Catalina, Ugi Is, Three Sisters Is; cas Makira?).
P. r. cyanopterus Res Solomon Is (Rennell, Bellona).

P. roseicapilla Mariana Fruit-Dove
Res Mariana Is 9500 inds (Guam to Saipan).

P. perousii Many-colored Fruit-Dove
P. p. perousii Res Samoa incl Am. Samoa where <50 inds.
P. p. mariae Res Tonga (Late, ?Haapai; extirp Eua), Fiji (larger islands only where P. porphyraceus absent, except for Laucala, where both occur, Watling 2001).

P. huttoni Rapa Island Fruit-Dove
Res Tubuai Is (Rapa I 30-274 inds).

P. insularis Henderson Island Fruit-Dove
Res Pitcairn Is (Henderson I 3140-4000 inds).

P. chalcurus Makatea Fruit-Dove
Res Tuamotu Arch (Makatea I 1000 inds).

P. coralensis Atoll Fruit-Dove
Res Tuamotu Arch (except Makatea I; extirpated Gambier Is (Mangareva).

P. chrysogaster Society Islands Fruit-Dove
NOTE: P. p. chrysogaster and the next 3 taxa appear to deserve specific status (Gibbs et al 2001).
Res Society Is (Bora Bora 50 inds, Huahine, Raiatea, Tahaa 500 inds, Maupiti 100 inds).

P. rarotongensis Rarotongan Fruit-Dove
P. r. rarotongensis Res Cook Is (Rarotonga <100 inds 1987, but est 2000-3000 in 1973).
P. r. goodwini Res Cook Is (Atiu, this subsp? extirp Mauke).

P. frater Moorea Fruit-Dove
Res Society Is (Moorea 5000-6000 inds).

P. purpuratus Grey-green Fruit-Dove
Res Society Is (Tahiti).