GAVIIDAE (1 species)

This family, which is restricted to the Northern Hemisphere, contains 5 species which generally occur in temperate regions, and, although strongly migratory, remain close to the coastline. Eggs May-Jul.

Gavia pacifica Pacific Loon
Cas Nov-Mar Guadalupe I. Acc Hawaiian Is (Dec-Feb Oahu; Pyle 2002; 3 other recs of Pacific/Arctic Loons: Oahu Dec, Maui Nov, Midway Nov, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

SPHENISCIDAE (18 species)

Family restricted to southern hemisphere with exception of Spheniscus mendiculus Galapagos Penguin, which has breeding colonies at the north end of Isabela in the Northern Hemisphere, as well as elsewhere in the Galapagos. All species but South African S. demersus Jackass Penguin and South American S. humboldti Humboldt Penguin have been recorded in the Pacific Region; there appear not to be any records of Humboldt Penguin over 200 miles from the S. American coastline. Family consists of 18 species if Eudyptes chrysolophus Macaroni Penguin, E. schlegeli Royal Penguin, Eudyptula minor Blue Penguin, and E. hollandiae Little Penguin considered full species. Adults range near nesting sites during the breeding season, and are generally sedentary throughout the year, but juveniles and immatures may wander extensively after fledging, returning to breeding colonies only after 2 years or more. Breeding adults molt ashore or on ice after young are independent; individuals may appear far from the breeding range when forced ashore to molt.

Aptenodytes patagonicus King Penguin
NOTE: Some authors (eg HANZAB) treat the species as monotypic; there is size and genetic variation between various insular populations (Shirihai 2002).
A. p. halli Breeds Macquarie I 70,000 prs, 300,000 inds. Eggs Nov-Mar.
A. p. subsp? Cas Aug-Feb Campbell I, Feb-Apr Antipodes Is, Auckland Is. Acc Jan-May Chatham Is (Star Keys, Miskelly et al 2006), Snares Is, NZ (SI).

A. forsteri Emperor Penguin
Acc NZ (Apr 1967 SI, possibly taken onboard a ship and released in local waters, Henderson 1968; Jan-Jun 2011 Peka Peka Beach, rehabilitated and released Sep near Campbell I, Miskelly et al 2012); Macquarie I (Feb 1997 and 1998); 13 of 15 recs from outside normal range are Jan-Apr (HANZAB). Eggs Apr-Jun.

Pygoscelis papua Gentoo Penguin

NOTE: That Pygoscelis is masculine was discussed by David and Gosselin (2002b); papua is invariable, however.
P. p. papua Breeds Macquarie I 4700 prs. Cas Dec-Aug Campbell I, Nov Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002), NZ (Sep-Feb SI). Acc Dec Snares Is. Eggs Aug-Nov.

P. adeliae Adelie Penguin
Cas Nov 1950 and Feb 1964 Macquarie I; NZ (SI, Marlborough Dec 1962, Kaikoura Jan 1993). Eggs Nov-Dec.

P. antarcticus Chinstrap Penguin
Cas Dec-Mar Macquarie I. Acc NZ (Nov SI), Nov Antipodes Is, Mar Campbell I. Eggs Nov-Dec.

Eudyptes chrysocome Southern Rockhopper Penguin

NOTE: Shirihai (2002) and Christidis and Boles (2008) cited available evidence for species status of moseleyi, including different breeding phenology and plumage differences suggesting isolating mechanisms. Jouventin et al (2006) provided genetic confirmation of divergence justifying species status. OSNZ (2010) recognizes species status for this taxon also.
Cas Snares Is; max 2 birds per year 1985-1999 may have been same birds, as no imms seen (Miskelly et al 2001) . Eggs Oct-Nov.

E. filholi Eastern Rockhopper Penguin
NOTE: This taxon is often included within E. chrysocome, in which case the latter has two subspecies.
Breeds Macquarie I 100,000 prs, Antipodes Is 50,000 prs, but 4000 prs Tennyson et al 2002), Campbell I 51,000 prs, Auckland Is 5000-10,000 prs. Cas Dec-Mar Snares Is (most molting, HANZAB), Campbell I, NZ (Jan-Mar SI). Acc Feb-Mar Chatham Is (1 rec, Miskelly and Bell 2004), (this taxon?) Bounty Is (Shirihai 2002). Eggs Oct-Nov.

E. moseleyi Northern (Moseley's, Tristan) Rockhopper Penguin
Cas Aug-Mar Chatham Is (6 recs, Miskelly and Bell 2004). Acc NZ (Dec-Jan 1984 NI). Eggs Oct-Nov.

E. pachyrhynchus Fiordland Crested Penguin

NOTE: Christidis and Boles (2008) included robustus in pachyrhynchus based on rather low genetic distance between them, comparable to that between chrysolophus and schlegeli, which were combined by these authors.
Breeds NZ (perhaps 2500-3000 prs in all- Shirihai 2002; sw SI 1025 prs, Solander Is 115 prs, Codfish I 140 prs, w and s Stewart I). Reg Nov-Mar Snares Is; up to 30 imms molting per year Dec-Mar (Miskelly et al 2001). Cas NZ (NI), Chatham Is, Auckland Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I (Heather and Robertson 1996). Eggs Jul-Aug.

E. robustus Snares Crested Penguin

NOTE: Based on egg dates, it is possible that birds breeding on the Snares Western Chain may be E. sclateri Erect-crested Penguin or even an un-named species (Miskelly et al 2001; Robertson and Van Tets 1982).
Breeds Snares Is 23,000 prs. Cas Nov-Mar (mostly molting imms Jan-Feb) NZ (SI), Chatham Is (7 recs through 2006, Miskelly et al 2006), Antipodes Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I. Acc NZ (Jan-Feb NI). Eggs Sep-Oct North East I, Nov (6 wks later) Western Chain (Miskelly et al 2001).

E. sclateri Erect-crested Penguin
Breeds Antipodes Is 115,000 prs, but 52,000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002), Bounty Is 115,000 prs (although major declines in recent years with 77,000 prs total for the species in mid-1990s), Auckland Is (Disappointment I) few, Campbell I apparently now extirpated (Shirihai 2002). Reg up to 10, max 35 per year molting Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001), Chatham Is (Miskelly and Bell 2004; 31 recs mostly Jan-Mar through 2006, Miskelly et al 2006). Cas NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Macquarie I. Eggs Oct-Nov.

E. chrysolophus Macaroni Penguin
Cas NZ 3 recs Nov-Jan Snares Is. Acc Jan 1968 Campbell I, Macquarie I. Eggs Oct-Dec.

E. schlegeli Royal Penguin

NOTE: Following Dickinson (2003), here considered separate from, although often considered conspecific with, E. chrysolophus Macaroni Penguin; OSNZ (1990) and Christidis and Boles (1994) point out that identification away from breeding areas is problematic. Christidis and Boles (2008) combined the two based on the relatively small genetic distance between the two taxa. Harrison (1983) considered schlegeli a "colour phase" most common at Macquarie I. Intermediates occur at Macquarie I.
Breeds Macquarie I 848,719 prs (Shirihai 2002). Reg summer-fall Auckland Is, Campbell I. Cas Feb-Mar Snares Is, NZ (SI). Acc NZ (NI, Chatham Is: Feb-Mar Pitt I and Rangatira I, Miskelly et al 2006). Eggs Oct-Dec.

Megadyptes antipodes Yellow-eyed Penguin

NOTE: There are two genetically distinct populations, southern (Auckland Is, Campbell Is), and northern (Miskelly et al 2001). Breeding NZ (SI) may be relatively recent, following extinction of recently-recognized congener M. waitaha, which occupied the South Island (OSNZ 2010).
Breeds NZ (total 6-7000 inds; SI 365 prs, Codfish I 120-150 prs, Stewart I 100-150 prs), Auckland Is 520-570 prs, Campbell I 310-480 prs. Cas NZ (NI), Chatham Is (Rangatira I, one resident 1984-1998, Miskelly et al 2006). Acc Dec Snares Is. Eggs Sep-Oct.

Eudyptula minor Blue Penguin
NOTE: Although several subspecies have been proposed (see below), some authors consider them indistinguishable morphometrically, forming a cline (OSNZ 1990, 2010). Recent genetic studies (Banks et al 2002, 2008; Puecker et al 2009) indicate two strongly-differentiated clades comprising Australian and at least some NZ birds at colonies from Oamaru to the Catlins, as well as at Motunau I (corresponding to hollandiae) in one, and the remaining NZ birds in the other, corresponding to minor; the relationships of albosignata were equivocal, possibly a result of gene flow from both clades. Boyd considers the evidence in Puecker et al (2009) indicative of species status; we have followed Boyd here, while retaining a list of subspecies often used within minor and noting that Puecker et al found all subspecies to be paraphyletic to varying degrees. Total population for species about 1,000,000 (Shirihai 2002).
E. m. iredalei Breeds NZ (NI, n of Kawhia and East Cape; cas s to Taranaki and Hawkes Bay).
E. m. variabilis Breeds NZ (s NI and n SI, incl Cook Strait; Cape Egmont to Punakaiki in the west, Hawkes Bay to Kaikoura, incl Motunau I, in the east.)
E. m. chathamensis Breeds Chatham Is (5000-10,000 prs, Aikman and Miskelly 2004).
E. m. albosignata Breeds NZ 10,460 inds (Challies and Burleigh 2004)(SI: Motunau I and Banks Peninsula; cas n to Gisborne and s to Southland.) Translocated to Godley Head, Christchurch (Miskelly and Powlesland 2013).
E. m. minor Breeds NZ (SI: Greymouth and Oamaru south, and Stewart I; cas n to Golden Bay and s to Snares Is.)
E. sp. this sp? Cas Jul, Oct, Nov Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).
Eggs Jul-Dec.

E. hollandiae Little Penguin
Res NZ (SI; 22 individuals detected in 4 colonies: Catlins, Otago Peninsula, Oamaru, Motunau I, Puecker et al, 2009).

Spheniscus magellanicus Magellanic Penguin
Breeds Juan Fernandez Is. Acc (poss ship-assisted) NZ (Mar NI, Mar SI). Eggs Sep-Oct.

S. mendiculus Galapagos Penguin
Breeds Galapagos Is (total 1400-2700 inds; Isabela, Fernandina, Bartolome. At sea vicinity, including San Salvador, Santa Cruz, Santa Maria. Eggs Jul-Dec.

OCEANITIDAE (10-11 species)

Recent evidence has demonstrated that the storm-petrels are polyphyletic, separating into northern and southern hemisphere clades; Hydrobatidae applies to northern storm-petrels and Oceanitidae to southern storm-petrels (see discusssion in Christidis and Boles 2008); furthermore, they are not sister taxa (IOC V. 7.1, Nunn & Stanley 1998; Penhallurick & Wink 2004, Hackett et al. 2008). Oceanitidae consists of 5 genera, Oceanites, Garrodia, Pelagodroma, Fregetta, and Nesofregetta. Recent genetic studies (for example Penhallurick and Wink 2004, see Christidis and Boles 2008) place the storm-petrels as sister clades to Diomedeidae.

Oceanites oceanicus Wilson's Storm-Petrel

NOTE: Subspecies occurrence in the Pacific is somewhat unclear. Apparently exasperatus does not occur east of 119W in east-central Pacific, leaving a gap of 3000 km between this subspecies and O. chilensis (Spear and Ainley 2007).The species type (O. o. oceanicus) was collected in the southern Atlantic, and this taxon has not been reported in the Pacific; a pair at Bishop I, near Macquarie I, was listed as oceanicus by OSNZ (2010), but these authors synonomized chilensis with oceanicus; neither seems likely at that location.
O. o. exasperatus At sea breeding season Nov-Mar n to 50S; May-Nov n to 30N in n Pacific incl Japan, e to Washington; movement Mar-May and Nov-Dec, mostly in c and w Pacific, unc NZ. Concentration Oct-Nov on equator at 170W-180 (King 1974, Spear and Ainley 2007). Cas Apr-May Marshall Is (Huber 1971), Caroline Is (Kosrae- Hayes et al 2016), Hawaiian Is (all of the few recs to date in fall Sep-Nov, Pyle and Pyle 2009; 2 birds Sep n of Laysan I and Lisianski and 4 in Sep n Kauai, Mike Force; 3 late Sep Palmyra area, Force and Webb), Mar Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Vanuatu, New Caledonia (rare Mar-May, Barre and Dutson 2000), Solomon Is (Apr, Jul, Aug, Nov, Dutson 2001; Penhallurick 2003; Hadden 2004a; 19 in Solomon Sea Aug, M. Carter), May Fiji (eg Pym et al 2009), Mar Tonga prob this sp (Watling 2001).

O. chilensis (incl magellanicus) Fuegian Storm-Petrel

NOTE: This taxon was described by Murphy for smaller birds breeding near Cape Horn; the validity of the name is confirmed by Palma et al (2012). Recently this taxon was considered to be a full species by Dowdall et al (2009) and Harrison et al (2011).
At sea north in Humboldt Current to Ecuador (Murphy 1936); northernmost at 3.10S (Spear and Ainley 2007), and within 509 km of mainland (Spear and Ainley 2007) but reported for Juan Fernandez Is (AOU 1957). One spec (May) of 66 from Enitowok this subsp (Pyle and Pyle 2009). Concentration Aug off nw S. America 0-20S/75-85W (King 1974) apparently refers to chilensis (Spear and Ainley 2007).

O. gracilis Elliot's (White-vented) Storm-Petrel
O. g. galapagoensis Breeds ("many thousands") Galapagos Is. Eggs? At sea in vicinity and poss off Peru and Chile.
O. g. gracilis At sea off Ecuador, Peru, Chile between 3-31S and within 475 km of mainland (Spear and Ainley 2007).

O. pincoyae Pincoya Storm-Petrel
This species was described by Harrison et al (2013).
Breeds in Reloncavi Sound and Chacao Channel, Chile, 3000 individuals (Harrison et al (2013). May not occur >200 miles offshore.

Garrodia nereis Grey-backed Storm-Petrel
Breeds (total 10,000-50,000 prs) Macquarie I 5 prs (Tasmanian Wildlife Service), Auckland Is, Campbell I (OSNZ 2010), Antipodes Is "tens of thousands nesting prs" (Tennyson et al 2002), Chatham Is 10,000-12,000 prs (Aikman and Miskelly 2004). Eggs Sep- Dec. At sea in vicinity, cas n to 35S NZ (SI, NI), Tasman Sea.

Pelagodroma marina White-faced Storm-Petrel
P. m. dulciae At sea Apr-Sep sw Pacific, poss between Fiji and Kermadec Is (Imber 1984); recent banding recoveries suggest however that most occur in Indian Ocean (see Spear and Ainley 2007). Acc NZ (May NI), Sep (this subsp?) Samoa (Tutuila).
P. m. maoriana Breeds 2-4 million prs NZ (islands off NI, SI, Stewart I), Auckland Is, Chatham Is 1,000,000 prs, incl 840,000 Rangatira (Aikman and Miskelly 2004). Eggs Oct-Dec. At sea Apr-Sep n to Equator incl Tasman Sea and e to Galapagos Is and to 5N in e Pacific (Imber 1984; Shirihai 2002; 1 banded Chatham Is recovered Humboldt Current 10S), incl Cocos I (acc, Montoya 2008a, 2008b). Thought to migrate to Humboldt Current, following it north to area of Galapagos Is and then directly back to NZ (King 1974, Imber 1984). Large numbers present west of Galapagos Is in area 8S-5N and 100-112W in Aug-Sep (King 1974), but only 3 recs at Galapagos Is (Swash and Still 2005). One near Austral Is between Mangareva and Morotiri 25-26 Sep 2006, and then every day from about 700nm NE off East Cape through to Bay of Plenty (Tauranga) North Island NZ 3 Oct; "returning to breed" (Gaskin and Wood).
P. m. albiclunis

NOTE: Probably because breeding of P. marina had never been proved on the Kermadec Is, Imber (1984) made a case that white-rumped birds (generally referred to as albiclunis) were immatures of dulciae. However Imber and Baird found adult albiclunis in burrrows on Haszard I Aug 2006 and estimated 100-300 pairs there; adults had very pale but not white rumps (Imber, post to BIRDING-NZ Sep 2006). Imber and Stephenson (2008) found 150+ near Haszard I.
Breeds Kermadec Is (Haszard I, Imber and Stephenson 2008; Macauley I? Meyer I? Veitch et al 2004). Extirp? Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004); this taxon? Norfolk I (Imber and Stephenson 2008). Eggs Dec? (Veitch et al 2004). At sea in vicinity, incl 2 recs Jan and Mar Lord Howe I (one with white rump as in albiclunis, McAllan et al 2004); cas May-Jul off New Caledonia (this subsp? Dutson 2011); one well-described possibly this taxon Fiji May 2009 (Hadoram and Pym et al).

Fregetta maoriana New Zealand Storm-Petrel
NOTE: A full discussion of the taxonomic history of this taxon is in Stephenson et al (2009), and recent DNA work (Robertson et al 2011) has resolved its taxonomy, indicating it is a Fregetta. An exciting recent development was the sighting of a New Zealand Storm-Petrel off NZ Jan 2003, the first sighting for some 150 years (NI: Whitianga; Saville et al 2003; Subsequently, photos were taken by Flood and Thomas of several birds near Little Barrier Island Nov 2003 and numerous sightings have been made since in the outer Hauraki Gulf of New Zealand. See comments under Polynesian Storm-Petrel, below, and at New Zealand Birds Online(
Breeds NZ (NI: Little Barrier Island (Gaskin et al 2013, Gaskin and Baird 2005, Robertson and Stephenson 2009). It has been suggested that it may disperse northward to area of North Cape during non-breeding season (Gaskin and Baird 2005).

?F. nov. sp.? Coral Sea (New Caledonian) Storm-Petrel
Descriptions and photographs of storm-petrels resembling New Zealand Storm-Petrel but larger and with heavier streaks on the underparts and limited white in the axillar area have been published (Walbridge:; and Collins (2013; It appears to be fairly numerous in the Coral Sea area, with fewer but consistent records nearer New Caledonia. Current consensus by observers is that these birds probably represent a tropical representative of Fregetta, although Bourne suggested (post to SEABIRD NEWS, Apr 2012) these birds might be N. fuliginosa. Attempts to capture individuals to collect blood samples for DNA analysis are under way (Collins, Walbridge).
An intriguing possibility is that these Coral Sea-New Caledonia birds may be yet another re-discovery of a species long thought to be extinct; a single specimen exists that has been described as Pealea lineata Lined Storm-Petrel; it was collected in Samoa in the mid-19th century for the US Exploring Expedition on Upolu Island, Samoa by a local Samoan who said they “bred in holes high up in the mountains” (Matthews 1933). Matthews considered the unique specimen a species separate from Fregetta on basis of foot anatomy.

F. tropica Black-bellied Storm-Petrel
F. t. tropica Breeds Auckland Is 50,000-100,000 prs, Antipodes Is "tens of thousands of prs" (Tennyson et al 2002), ?Bounty Is (Shirihai 2002). Eggs Jan. At sea Nov-Apr near breeding sites, cas n to NZ; May-Oct n to 15S, incl Solomon Is (11 in Solomon Sea Aug, M. Carter), Vanuatu, New Caledonia (Penhallurick 2003; this sp or grallaria Feb, Apr, Jun, Oct, Barre and Dutson 2000), and s Polynesia. One May 2009 Fiji was 2nd record there (Hadoram and pym et al 2009). Cas (this sp?) Samoa (Upolu; listed as Fregetta lineata Peale's Storm-Petrel, Armstrong 1932; synonymized with F. tropica by Murphy 1952 and OSNZ 1990), Marquesas Is (Penhallurick 2003).

F. grallaria White-bellied Storm-Petrel

NOTE: Lord Howe breeders include melanistic individuals, light and intermediate birds occur at the Kermadecs, and Juan Fernandez birds are light morphs (Spear and Ainley 2007).
F. g. grallaria Breeds Lord Howe I 1000 prs, Kermadec Is (<500 prs Curtis, <200 prs Macauley, Veitch et al 2004). Eggs Jan-Mar. At sea in vicinity Sep-May, n to Coral Sea, c Pacific (Hutton 1991), Samoa (Upolu), Marquesas Is (Ua Pou, Murphy 1952, DuPont 1976), 15 collected Oct-Nov 120W-150W believed this taxon based on size, molt, and distance of >3500 km to nearest segethi (Spear and Ainley 2007); prob this sp n to Solomon Is, New Caledonia (see tropica), Vanuatu, Cook Is (Aug, Holyoak 1980). Cas NZ (8 records Apr-Jul, Nov-Dec). Acc Norfolk I May 2001 (at sea, 1st live rec? Clarke), Fiji (1st rec Jul 2008 near Taveuni, Pym).
F. g. titan Breeds Tubuai Is (Rapa 500 prs, Penhallurick 2003). Eggs? At sea in vicinity, incl Marquesas Is, Society Is; one collected Nov at 5N 140W (Spear and Ainley 2007) and another 450 km south of Galapagos Is believed to be this taxon (Murphy 1936).
F. g. segethi Breeds Juan Fernandez Is, Desadventuradas Is, est 114,600 in austral spring and 442,500 in austral fall (Spear and Ainley 2007). Eggs Dec-Jan. At sea in vicinity, mostly in Humboldt Current between Equator and 36S and within 1700 km of mainland South America ie west to about 100W (Spear and Ainley 2007). Cas n to Galapagos Is May- Aug.

Nesofregetta fuliginosa Polynesian (White-throated) Storm-Petrel
NOTE: The single specimen "Samoan Storm Petrel" ("Fregetta moestissima") a large dark form, may be a distinct population (King 1974); considered a subspecies of N. fuliginosa by some authors (eg. Clements 2000).
Breeds New Caledonia (recently confirmed 3 colonies Southern Lagoon, Barre and Dutson 2000), Kiribati (?Gilbert Is: Tabiteuea, Amerson 1969; Phoenix Is: Phoenix/Rawaki, McKean, King 1974; Line Is: Kiritimati, King 1974; breeding pop Phoenix, Line and Gambier Is est 4-40,000, but world pop prob about 10,000, see Spear and Ainley 2007, but more recently Bird Life International estimates 250-999 "mature individuals" (2017), Tubuai Is (Rapa), Gambier Is 200-500 prs, ?Marquesas Is (5 collected in breeding condition within 875 km Oct and Apr-May indicative of breeding at this location, Spear and Ainley 2007), Desadventuras Is (Sala-y-Gomez I). Breeding unconfirmed Vanuatu (extirp? Watling 2001), Fiji (duPont 1976; extirp? Watling 2001; only one sighting last 30 yrs, Masibalavu and Dutson 2006; near Gau Jul 2008 and May 2009 Pym and Hadoram et al 2009); Samoa (extirp? Watling 2001). Eggs year round, but peaks Kiribati (Kiritimati Sep-Nov; Line Is Jan), Marquesas Is Jul-Dec (Chester et al 1998). At sea c and e Pacific between 25N and 30S, esp 10N and 20S and 90W - 150W (King 1974, Spear and Ainley 2007), incl Cook Is (Aug, Holyoak 1980) and concentrations 10N-10S/100-120W (King 1974). Cas ?Marshall Is (Spennemann and Benjamin 2004), Hawaiian Is (one in Oct Johnston Atoll area, Force and Webb), Solomon Is (Penhallurick 2003; one in Solomon Sea Aug, M. Carter), near and north of Norfolk I Apr 2008 (Collins, WildWings); one Niue Aug 2010 (Baird).