PROCELLARIIDAE (73 species)
This family of 15 genera and 73 species can be divided into 5 groups, although the genera Lugensa, Halobaena, and Bulweria are intermediate and difficult to assign. The 6 groups are: Fulmars, including genera Macronectes, Fulmarus, Thalassoica, Daption, Pagodroma, and Lugensa; Shearwaters, including genera Calonectris, Ardenna, and Puffinus, Large Petrels, including genera Procellaria, Bulweria, and Pseudobulweria, Prions, including genera Halobaena and Pachyptila, and Gadfly-Petrels, genus Pterodroma. Most of the world's species have been recorded in the Pacific Region.
Macronectes giganteus Southern Giant-Petrel
NOTE: The giant-petrels were assigned specific status mainly due to assortative mating on Macquarie Island (Bourne and Warham 1966). Recently, Penhallurick and Wink (2004) recommended reduction of the giant-petrels to their previous sub-specific status because of the small difference in their cytochrome b and apparent non-assortative mating on Bird Island, South Georgia.
Breeds Macquarie I 2000-2200 prs (Baker et al 2002). At sea Jun-Aug n to 20S, 5S off S. America. Imms further n than ads, and, as a species, ranges further n than M. halli. One banded S. Shetland Is Feb 2001 recovered off se Australia Jun 2002 (SOSSA #27); most recoveries of Indian Ocean breeders in Australia and NZ (Shirihai 2002). Cas New Caledonia (Jul-Oct, Barre and Dutson 2000), Lord Howe I (Feb, May, Nov, McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I, Vanuatu (Dutson 2011), Fiji (Viti Levu: one recovered Jun banded Marion I Feb; also 2 Jun specs banded Macquarie I Feb 1959 before species separated, Watling 2001, prob this sp., as the only 2 of the 9 recs identified to species are giganteus, Watling 2001), Tonga (Nomuka: spec Jul), Society Is (Tahiti), Easter I. Acc Jul Tokelau Is, Hawaiian Is (Midway I?, Enticott and Tipling 1997, but unsubstantiated Pratt 1987), Galapagos Is. Eggs Sep-Oct.
giganteus/halli sp? Cas Kermadec Is Sep-Oct (Veitch et al 2004), Niue Sep (Powlesland et al 2000), Tubuai Is (listed as giganteus by Penhallurick 2003), Tuamotu Is (listed as giganteus by Penhallurick 2003).
M. halli Northern Giant-Petrel
Breeds Macquarie I 1200 prs (Baker et al 2002), Chatham Is (2000 prs: Forty Fours, Sisters, Aikman and Miskelly 2004), Antipodes Is 320 prs,
Campbell I 100 prs, NZ (Stewart I: Nelly I at Port Pegasus), Auckland Is. At sea Jun-Aug n to 35S,
to 20S off S. America; Oct ca 33-34S/170W (Gaskin and Wood). Most recoveries of Indian Ocean breeders in Australia and NZ (Shirihai 2002). Acc (New Caledonia Jun, Jul, Dutson 2011), Cook Is (Mauke: Jul 1970, banded at Crozet Is, Holyoak 1980; Mangaia: Macronectes sp? Holyoak, 1980; Rarotonga: 2 specs Aug-Sep juvs, McCormack 2006). Eggs Aug-Sep.
Fulmarus glacialis Northern Fulmar
F. g. rogersii At sea Jan-Feb s to 25N, Oct-Apr off California (McGrath and Feenstra 2005); May 1999 29.5N 133.5W (Smith). Cas Hawaiian Is Nov-Mar. Acc
Guadalupe I, s Izu Is (Sofu-Gan).
F. glacialoides Southern Fulmar
At sea May-Dec n to 35S, off S. America n to 10S. Acc Galapagos Is.
Thalassoica antarctica Antarctic Petrel
At sea n to 50S in winter. Cas n, mostly Aug-Oct, to Macquarie I, Chatham Is, NZ (incl NI).
Daption capense Cape Petrel
D. c. australe Breeds Snares Is 7385 prs (Miskelly et al 2001), Antipodes Is 300 prs, Bounty Is 35 prs, Campbell I,
Auckland Is, Chatham Is (10s of prs: Forty-fours, Pyramid, Aikman and Miskelly 2004), Macquarie I (1 pr? this subsp? R. Clarke). At sea n to NZ (SI) during breeding season. At sea Aug-Sep n in sw Pacific to 25S incl (rarely) Norfolk I and Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991, May and Aug-Nov, McAllan 2004); one 24-25S near Austral Is Sep (Gaskin and Wood); uncertain subsp n to 0 off S. America between
Galapagos Is and Ecuador (and further: one, subsp unknown, followed ship to 16N). Cas New Caledonia (this subsp? Aug-Jan, Dutson 2011), Vanuatu (Dutson 2011). Acc Marquesas Is, Cook Is (Aug-Sep s Cook Is, Holyoak 1980), Galapagos Is (1 rec, Swash and Still 2005). Eggs Nov.
D. c. capense At sea in sw Pacific Jul-Oct n to 25S, generally more southerly than australe, although spec found Fiji (Vanua Levu) Sep banded Feb Antarctica, and one ID this subsp Cook Is (Aug Rarotonga, McCormack 2006).
Pagodroma nivea Snow Petrel
NOTE: Two subspecies have been recognized by OSNZ (2010); these are separable mensurally, but significant sexual dimorphism in both forms and extensive hybridization where ranges meet suggest that species status for the two taxa not warranted (Christidis and Boles 1994, 2008).
P. n. nivea At sea Jun-Oct n to 55S. Cas Macquarie I (Scofield and Wiltshire 2004, Milius, Schultz fide R. Clarke).
Lugensa brevirostris Kerguelen Petrel
NOTE: Retention in Lugensa rather than placement in Pterodroma based on breeding biology, which
resembles that of fulmarine genera (Imber 1985). Data in Penhallurick and Wink (2004) suggest Lugensa is somewhat closer to Puffinus shearwaters than to Pterodroma, although rather distant from both. Olson (2000) has suggested use of Aphrodroma to replace Lugensa, but the latter is used here following Penhallurick and Wink (2004) and Christidis and Boles (2008).
At sea (subadults) in sw Pacific May-Oct n to 35S NZ region (incl Macquarie I Oct 2002- R. Clarke; one n of Norfolk I 21 Jul, Barnard) but 55S elsewhere s Pacific except, prob juvs, to waters off Chile at 40S Aug (Howell et al 1996).
The genus Puffinus was shown by Penhallurick and Wink (2004) to be parayphyletic, consisting of two groups, the smaller species, retaining Puffinus as their generic name, and the larger species, for which the name Ardenna is used.
Calonectris diomedea Cory's Shearwater
C. d. borealis Acc NZ (Jan 1934 NI).
C. leucomelas Streaked Shearwater
Breeds Ogasawara Is. Eggs May-Jun. At sea Feb-Oct vicinity and n to n Japan, s to Palau, Caroline Is (Truk, Yap), Mariana Is (Reichel and Glass 1991); Oct-Apr sw Pacific, incl Solomon Is (Green Is, Nuguria, Tarburton 2006, Hadden 2004b; Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; one record Guadalcanal Dutson 2011), New Caledonia one rec Nov, Barre and Dutson 2000), north Tasman Sea (Harrison 1983). Cas Aug-Oct off US (McGrath and Feenstra 2005), Hawaiian Is (Aug Laysan, Mar, Apr Kauai, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Acc NZ (Feb 2006 NI, Scofield et al 2010).
Ardenna pacifica Wedge-tailed Shearwater
NOTE: Two subspecies were proposed by Murphy (1951), who noted that the 3 populations he assigned to A. p. pacifica (Kermadec Is, Norfolk Is, Kadavu in Fiji) consisted entirely of dark-plumaged birds, while all other populations contained variable percentages of pale-breasted birds, nearing 100% in northwesternmost populations. Thus by default, birds not assigned to pacifica were assigned to chlororhynchus, which position was accepted by HANZAB and OSNZ (2010); this conclusion results in Lord Howe I breeders, which are all dark-breasted, as well as those on the N. Mariana Is, also dark-breasted, being assigned to chlororhynchus, which seems illogical. Thus it seems prudent not to recognize subspecies; Murphy himself stated (1951) that there were few if any consistent differences between his 2 proposed subspecies that met the "75% rule" for subspecies designation, the one possible exception being wing length. Murphy noted, however, that there is a significant difference in size between breeders at Lord Howe and those of both the Kermadec Is and Norfolk I; mensurally, Lord Howe birds align more closely with those of the Indian Ocean. Many current authors consider the species monotypic (Harrison 1983, HANZAB, Clements 2000, Dickinson 2003). Pale birds are most common northerly (Hawaiian Is, Ogasawara Is); only dark birds breed Mariana Is, Kermadec Is, Norfolk I, Lord Howe I (HANZAB). Perhaps more significant in determining genetic structure in this species is the significant difference in timing of breeding between, for example, Hawaiian Is breeders and those in the southwest Pacific.
Pale birds outnumber dark birds 100-200+:1 within 150 mi e of Hawaiian Is in Aug, dark birds predominate further e (Rowlett); poss non-breeders from range of pacifica- see below. Strong evidence that Hawaiian Is breeders spend non-breeding season in eastern Pacific; pale-breasted birds predominate in latter area Oct-Feb (King 1974) and are common off Costa Rica Jan, Apr, Jul, Nov (Zook). Birds off Solomon Is (Buka) Jan both pale and dark (Hadden 2004b).
Breeds New Caledonia (500,000 prs breeding Southern Lagoon poss largest colony known, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002), Vanuatu, Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991), Kermadec Is (extirp Raoul, 10,000+ prs Herald, 40,000 prs Macauley, 2500 prs Curtis, <500 prs Cheeseman, 50 prs L'Esperance, Veitch et al 2004), Norfolk I (1000-10,000 prs, Priddel et al 2010), Fiji (all sightings May 2009 dark birds, Pym and Hadoram 2009), Wallis and Futuna (Penhallurick 2003), Tonga (incl Niuafoou Rinke 1986), ?Samoa, Niue (Watling 2001, Powlesland et al 2000), Mariana Is (Aguigan, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Ogasawara Is (? Brazil 1991), Iwo Is, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei, Kosrae, Pratt 1987), Marshall Is 12,000+ inds (King 1974): Taongi, Bikar, Taka, pale-breasted, Amerson 1969), Johnston I (2500 inds, King 1974), Kiribati (Phoenix Is 10,000+ inds King 1974, Line Is 6000+ inds King 1974), Hawaiian Is 1,800,000 inds (230,000 prs NW Is., 67,000 prs SE Is., Pyle and Pyle 2009), Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Tubuai Is, Gambier Is 60-85 prs, Pitcairn Is (Henderson I), Easter I (Penhallurick 2003), and Revillagigedo Is (San Benedicto 1000 prs, Pitman and Ballance 2002).
Eggs variable by location: Dec Vanuatu, Nov-Dec Lord Howe, Jun-Jul Hawaiian Is. Generally sedentary, in tropical Pacific between 30N and 35S; southern breeders Jun-Sep n of equator to 30N in se North Pacific (Powlesland and Pickard 1992), acc off California (Jul, but poss Aug-Oct, McGrath and Feenstra 2005). Absent Hawaiian Is Dec-Feb (Pyle and Pyle 2009). Cas Palau (year round, dark birds, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Solomon Is (Dutson 2001, Hadden 2004a, 2004b; "spring/fall migrant Green Is, Nuguria, Tarburton 2006), NZ (NI: one banded Johnston Atoll recovered Cook Strait Nov, King 1974; mostly Nov-Apr NI, OSNZ 2010), Cook Is (this subsp? Aug-Sep, Holyoak 1980), Clipperton I, Galapagos Is, sometimes in large numbers near Costa Rica and Nicaragua (Seabird News 685, fide Pym).
A. bulleri Buller's Shearwater
Breeds NZ (NI: Poor Knights Is 2,500,000 inds); at sea breeding season of east coast of NZ and se to Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006). Has been found entering a burrow at Chatham Is (Rangatira I) Nov 2005, and a possible hybrid between this species and Sooty Shearwater was found on Rangatira I Jan 1990 (Miskelly et al 2006). Eggs Nov. At sea Apr-Oct to northern Pacific, generally north of Hawaiian Is, but to 35S off S. America, incl Clipperton I and Galapagos Is; exact route unknown, but present off Japan Jun-Jul and Sep-Nov (Brazil 1991) and thought to pass east of Tonga both outward and return (Watling 2001), thus prob general northward movement with drift of at least part of the population to east prior to return. Uncommon off US Jul-Nov (McGrath and Feenstra 2005). Oct ca. 34-25S/175W (Gaskin and Wood). Cas Jan and Apr Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004); Norfolk I Dec 2000 (McGovern, Keates), Dec 2008 (Baxter), Dec 2010 (Sutherland). Hawaiian Is (Apr-Aug, Nov, Pyle and Pyle 2009; 2 in Jun, Shirihai; 6 in Hawaiian Is EEZ during period Aug-Nov, M. Force); two recs May 2009 only 4th and 5th Fiji, Pym and Hadoram 2009). Acc New Caledonia (Dutson 2011).
A. carneipes Flesh-footed Shearwater
NOTE: Generally considered monotypic by current authors eg HANZAB; the subspecific name hullianus has been used for breeding populations listed below.
Breeds Lord Howe I 10,000-20,000 prs, Norfolk I (Philip I, 1-10 prs, Priddel et al 2010), NZ (islands off ne NI and in Cook Strait
50,000-100,000 prs). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea Apr-Oct to nw Pacific (but unlisted Mariana Is, Reichel and Glass 1991); many
to n and e Pacific Aug-Nov with peak Nov (McGrath and Feenstra 2005, Gillson) but also reported (immatures?) Feb-Aug; Oct-Jan Galapagos Is (Castro and Phillips
1996). Generally absent c Pacific, although spec Samoa "early" 2000 (Watling
2001). Cas Hawaiian Is (Pyle 2002; Apr-May and Sep-Nov Pyle and Pyle 2009); a few in Aug Palmyra, Force and Webb), Marshall Is (flying south Nov, Amerson 1969, Pratt 1987); Solomon Is (Green Is and Nuguria spring and fall, Tarburton 2006), New Caledonia (Sep, several Nov, Barre and Dutson 2000), Vanuatu (2 east of Vanuatu Nov, Myers et al), Fiji (Feb and May 2009, Hadoram and Pym et al 2009). Acc Revillagigedo Is.
A. creatopus Pink-footed Shearwater
considered conspecific with A. carneipes Flesh-footed Shearwater, most recently by Penhallurick and Wink (2004) based on cytochrome b data. Although subspecific status is an arguable case, the two are kept separate here based on widely-separated breeding sites, which would be expected to lead to further differentiation as a result of genetic drift within closed breeding populations. Use of creatopus is discussed by Christidis and Boles (2008); it is a noun in apposition.
Breeds Juan Fernandez Is (Isla Robinson Crusoe =Mas Atierra a few thousand prs, Santa Clara 3,000
prs). Eggs? At sea Apr-Nov to ne Pacific mostly n of 10N incl Clipperton I, Cocos I (Montoya 2003), and
Revillagigedo Is. Cas Oct-Jan Galapagos Is (Swash and Still 2005), Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Kiribati (Line Is), NZ (apparently "relatively often seen" off Kaikoura, Saville, with 5 recs Dec-Feb; SI Jun 1979, Watola). Acc Hawaiian Is (Aug ca 300 km se of Hawaii I; also 2 sightings 750-1400 km SE Hawaii I Oct, Pyle and Pyle 2009). A report for Mariana Is is disregarded (Reichel and Glass 1991).
A. gravis Great Shearwater
Cas NZ (450 m ENE of East Cape Sep 2006; Chatham Is 2 sightings poss same bird, Dec 2006-Jan 2007 east of Pitt Island and near Western Reef; off Dunedin Oct 2008 (Cannings); Kaikoura Feb 2010; 2 possible sightings near the Kermadec Is and another in Cook Strait were rejected by Bourne; Gaskin et al 2009). Records from the Pacific were summarized by Gaskin et al (2009); in addition to those cited above, it has occurred off South Australia Jan-Feb 1989 (same bird?) and off New South Wales 2006, a few records off Chile (Jaramillo), and 9 recs Alaska-California Aug-Jan.
A. griseus Sooty Shearwater
Breeds NZ (total pop 20,000,000, throughout, but mostly islands off Stewart I), Macquarie I 1000 prs, Campbell I, Antipodes Is 1000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002),
Chatham Is, Snares Is 2,750,000 prs, Auckland Is. Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea Mar-Dec in generally clockwise movement through northern Pacific and
southwestward to breeding grounds (Spear and Ainley 1999; http://terranature.org/sootyShearwaterMigration.htm); movement through tropics rapid until foraging areas in north Pacific reached, although observations off Japan late Apr-early May suggest foraging and molting off Japan, in contrast to Short-tailed Shearwater (Shin Ito fide Lethaby). Considered common off Japan Mar-Jul (Brazil 1991); juveniles reach Japan in Jun (Shin Ito fide Lethaby). Common Apr-Nov ne Pacific and off California (McGrath and Feenstra 2005). Telemetry graphics show direct flight southwest from USA to seas east of NZ, with two birds out of 14 then flying directly east towards Chile- see Chilean breeders below (http://www.seaturtle.org). Chilean breeders move
northwestward through c Pacific Apr-Sep to northern Pacific; reg migrant Galapagos Is (Swash and Still 2005), Hawaiian Is (Mar-May, more Sep-Nov, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Marshall Is, Gilbert Is; returning Oct-Dec by same route (perhaps earlier- several flying southeast in Palmyra area Aug, Force and Webb), and some
(immatures?) from NZ area eastward Oct-Mar to Humboldt Current, joining Chilean
breeders Apr-Sep but returning with NZ breeders to natal areas (Spear and Ainley
1999). Numerous east of Tonga May and recorded Marquesas Is May-Jun (Chester et al 1998), but few in southerly movement (Watling
2001). Regular Fiji, but note by Hadoram and Pym 2009: "Some showed quite dark underwings, had apparently short bills, and their feet projected beyond the tail in flight. We mistook some as Short-tailed Shearwaters, and these odd birds require future attention." Cook Is only rec 18 birds flying southwest Sep (Holyoak 1980); a few records Kermadec Is Oct-Jan (Veitch et al 2004). Cas Solomon Is (Green Is, Nuguria, spr and fall, Tarburton 2006), New Caledonia (Jul, Oct-Nov, Barre and Dutson 2000), Vanuatu (Dutson 2011), Lord Howe I (only 2 recs: Oct and Nov, McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I. Hypo Bougainville (Hadden 2004a).
A. tenuirostris Short-tailed Shearwater
At sea n Pacific Apr-Sep, clockwise movement,
initially to n Pacific to the west of Fiji (Watling 2001) and between Hawaiian Is (where cas; few May-Aug as northward migration mostly w. of Hawaiian Is, large numbers Sep-Nov mostly NW Is., Pyle and Pyle 2009; 127 NM south-southwest of Kure Atoll 8-10,000 birds per day for about 2 to 3 days mid-Sep, Force; hundreds some days flying south Johnston Atoll area late Sep but movement over by early Oct, Force and Webb) and Mariana Is (Reichel and Glass 1991) incl Lord Howe I (Sep-Jan, McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I, Solomon Is (Pinipel and Nissan spr and fall, Tarburton 2006), New Caledonia (Apr-May, Sep-Nov, hundreds, Barre and Dutson 2000), Vanuatu, Caroline Is (Pohnpei, Chuuk large nos 8-10 May, Wiles et al 2000), Marshall Is, Kiribati (Gilbert Is), Japan Apr-Jul (adults pass through rapidly late Apr-early May without foraging or molting, Shin Ito fide Lethaby; some birds- juvs?- remain until Nov), off west coast N. America Nov-Apr and e to Tuamotu Arch;
abundant Fiji area Sep-Nov, off NZ Nov-May. Cas Macquarie I, where large numbers, incl 3764 on 20 Feb, on several days heading south Feb and 580 in late Mar at 44-46S (R. Clarke), Chatham Is, Campbell I (OSNZ 2010). Acc Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004).
Puffinus nativitatis Christmas Shearwater
NOTE: This taxon and the next three were considered basal to the remaining Puffinus taxa by Austin et al (2004); the remaining Puffinus taxa were shown to consist of several lineages (including the extralimital Mediterranean group P. yelkouan and P. mauretanicus and Atlantic P. puffinus) comprising an unresolved polytomy. It has been suggested that darker underwings on some P. subalaris Galapagos Shearwater may result from hybridization with P. nativitatis but may also reflect changes with age, darker birds being younger (Pym, Bourne).
Breeds Hawaiian Is (14,000 inds e to Oahu and Molokai; most Laysan 1500-2000 prs and Lisianski
400-600 prs; only 165 prs SE Is. Pyle and Pyle 2009), Marshall Is (Taongi, Amerson 1969, Pyle and Engbring 1985), Johnston I, Kiribati (Phoenix Is 10,000-100,000 prs, Line Is 1000-10,000 prs), ?Samoa (Tau; questioned by Watling 2001; Tutuila, Manua, Penhallurick 2003), Marquesas Is, Gambier Is 450-850 prs, Austral Is, Pitcairn Is (Henderson I, Ducie I, Oeno I, Pitcairn I), Easter I, Sala-y-Gomez I 1,000 inds. Eggs Apr-Dec; Jul-Dec Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998), Mar-Sep Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is (Pym). At sea tropical Pacific
generally near breeding locations, although absent Nov during non-breeding season Marquesas and Tuamotu Is (Pym) and Hawaiian Is breeders winter to the s and e (Pyle and Pyle 2009, but extending west to Mariana Is (rare, Reichel and Glass 1991), Wake I, Caroline Is (Kosrae, Pyle and Engbring 1985), southwest to Solomon Is (incl Green Is and Nuguria Tarburton 2006; off Feni Is Aug Shirihai 2008), Fiji 2 recs, including May 2009, Pym and Hadoram 2009), Tuvalu
(Watling 2001), Kermadec Is (Nov 1989 Curtis, Veitch et al 2004) and ne to Mexico and C. America. Cas NZ (Feb 1976 NI), Jul Ogasawara
P. gavia Fluttering Shearwater
Breeds NZ (100,000-1,000,000 prs islands off NI, also eastern Marlborough Sounds area; reint Maud I). Breeding New Caledonia and Vanuatu (Banks Is) unsubstantiated (Bregulla 1992). Eggs Sep-Oct At sea breeding season
around NZ (NI and Marlborough Sounds), dispersing Jan-Oct throughout NZ seas
and to Tasman Sea. Cas Lord Howe I (2 recs: Feb and Mar, McAllan et al 2004), New Caledonia (Jul, Barre and Dutson 2000), Vanuatu, Solomon Is (Penhallurick 2003).
P. huttoni Hutton's Shearwater
Breeds NZ (SI: Seaward Kaikoura Mts 160,000 prs; relocated 172 chicks starting 2005 to artificial burrows Kaikoura Peninsula). Eggs Oct-Nov. At
sea vicinity and (immatures) Tasman Sea, incl Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991, 2 recs: Mar and Oct McAllan et al 2004); most off Australia Sep-Feb (Penhallurick 2003).
P. subalaris Galapagos Shearwater
NOTE: This taxon was considered differentiated at the species level by Austin et al (2004); see notes under P. nativitatis above.
Breeds Galapagos Is 10,000 prs (Swash and Still 2005). Eggs year round. At sea in vicinity. Cas Cocos I (Montoya 2008a). Acc
P. puffinus Manx Shearwater
Cas NZ (Dec- Saville; Jan 1985, Feb 2006, Jun 1972, Jul 2002, Watola); also Aug-Mar w coast N America (McGrath and Feenstra 2005; Roberson 1990; Gillson), increasing sightings recent years.
P. newelli Newell's Shearwater
NOTE: Some authors consider this and the next species conspecific; Austin et al (2004), while suggesting that newelli and P. a. myrtae were conspecific, did not treat auricularis. Here, Austin et al (2004) are followed, as in Onley and Scofield (2007). Austin et al (2004) noted, however, that the status of myrtae needed further investigation; it has some features of P. assimilis Little Shearwater and may be of hybrid origin (Pym; Bourne 1959). More recently, Martinez-Gomez (2015) suggested newelli and auricularis were conspecific, and suggested that myrtae be afforded specficic status. The latter was also proposed by Pratt (2015), who also suggested that retention of separate species status for newelli and auricularis is justified on morphologic, ecological, and breeding chronology grounds.
P. n. newelli Breeds Hawaiian Is (4,000-6,000 prs Kauai; extirp Maui, Molokai; estimates difficult- based on at-sea numbers, estimated 18-19,000 prs, with 15,000 of these on Kauai, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Eggs May-Jun. At sea in vicinity Apr-Oct incl Hawaii and Oahu; most move to the SE Nov-Mar (Pyle and Pyle 2009); several Palmyra Aug (Force and Webb), but absent rest of
year; one rec California Aug 2007. Cas Mariana Is (Reichel and Glass 1991). Acc NZ Nov 1994; Norfolk I Dec 1997 (Moore 1999), Samoa (Jan Tutuila, Sep). Evidence accumulsting that winter range includes eastern Solomon Is; 5 birds seen Santa Cruz Is Jan 2014 likely this species (Cook, Bourne).
F: Hawaiian Is: seen 900 km w of Kauai Feb (Lonsdale); 3-4 Apr Kauai-Lehua Rock (Melgar); up to 5 on fall boat trips Kauai (Kuhn); prob important feeding area
Kauai-Kaula-Niihau (Harrison 1990).
P. myrtae Rapa Shearwater
Breeds Tubuai Is (Rapa). Eggs? At sea in vicinity, incl (this subsp?) Marquesas Is (DuPont 1976).
P. auricularis Townsend's Shearwater
Breeds Revillagigedo Is (Clarion extirpated, Wanless et al 2009; Socorro 1,000 prs, ?San
Benedicto- Pitman and Ballance 2002). Eggs Apr-May. At sea in vicinity, but may disperse s to 8N near
P. opisthomelas Black-vented Shearwater
Guadalupe I 2500 prs. Eggs Feb-Mar. At sea e Pacific, mostly between 35N and
13N; north to southern California Sep-Apr (McGrath and Feenstra 2005).
P. bryani Bryan's Shearwater
NOTE: Recently described from a specimen and sight record from Midway I, Hawaiian Is (Pyle et al 2011; Pyle and Pyle 2009).
Breeding confirmed Ogasawara Is (Higashijima, 10 birds and nest, Mainichi Daily News 28 Mar 2015). Probably breeds Ogasawara Is (Hahajima, Chichijima); 6 specimens since 1997 (Horikoshi et al 2012); "several hundred" inds Ogasawara Is (Mainichi Daily News 8 Feb 2012); Sight records of "Bonin Little Shearwater" mostly off Ogasawara (Bonin) Is apparently this species (Chikara 2011).
P. bailloni Tropical Shearwater
NOTE:This and the following 2 species are sometimes considered
conspecific, and their taxonomy has been rather controversial. Recently Austin et al (2004), whose treatment is adopted here, resolved taxa previously included in P. lherminieri Audubon's Shearwater and P. assimilis Little Shearwater into 3 clades, each treated as full species. These are (1) P. assimilis Little Shearwater, as listed below except for myrtae, (2) P. lherminieri Audubon's Shearwater, confined to the north Atlantic Ocean and including taxa lherminieri, loyemilleri, baroli, and boydi, and (3) P. bailloni Tropical Shearwater, including extralimital (to the Pacific Region) taxa bailloni, atrodorsalis, persicus, temptator, weakly-differentiated taxa nicolae and colstoni, and Pacific Ocean taxon dichrous (polynesiae was considered weakly differentiated from dichrous). Austin et al (2004) did not treat the taxa gunax, bannermani, or heinrothi; gunax is treated as a subspecies of bailloni here. The taxon subalaris is considered a full species, Galapagos Shearwater (see above).
Of interest are comments by Scofield made prior to publication of Austin et al (2004; pers. comm. Angus Wilson); Scofield said "One could argue that what we have here are a subantarctic species, the true Little (as exemplified by elegans) and a true Audubon's (as exemplified by lherminieri) that have a lot of intermediate "hybrid" populations. I suspect that DNA work will make many of the more northern Little Shearwaters into blue-footed Audubon's."
P. b. dichrous (incl polynesiae Baker 1951; dichrous has recently been referred to as "Atoll Shearwater", implying specific status, Howell).
Breeds Palau (Koror, Babelthuap, Rock Is, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (?Yap, Truk, Pohnpei, Kosrae), ?Marshall Is (Spennemann and Benjamin 2004), (this subsp?) extirpated? Nauru (one spec Mar 1900, Frahnert and Buden 2008; Buden 2008), Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Kiritimati Dickinson 2003), ?Fiji (no currently known
sites-Watling 2001; poss Taveuni or nearby- several between Taveuni and Yacata/Nukutolu, Gaskin), Wallis and Futuna (Penhallurick 2003, "first record" Futuna Aug 2014, Thibault et al 2015), Tonga (Niuafoou), Samoa (Tutuila, Tau, ?Savaii, ?Upolu, ?Manua), Tuamotu Is, Gambier Is 660-1085 prs, Marquesas Is. Breeding Mariana Is discounted by Reichel and Glass (1991). Eggs variable by location; breeds year round Gambier Is (Thibault and Bretagnolle 1999), Jul-Dec Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998). At sea near breeding locations; vis Kiribati (?Gilbert Is, Amerson 1969; Line Is), Tuvalu, Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea). Cas Mariana Is (Rota, Reichel and Glass 1991), Cook Is (Jul-Aug, Holyoak 1980), Cocos I (Montoya 2008).
P. b. gunax Breeds Vanuatu (Banks Is- Mere Lava, Dutson 2011), ?New Caledonia (Barre and Dutson 2000). Eggs Sep-Oct? At sea in vicinity. Cas Solomon Is (one towards Rabaul from Nissan summer, Nuguria, Tarburton 2006; Dec Bougainville: between Kieta and Buka, Hadden 2004a; off Guadalcanal Jan-Feb, Dutson 2001).
F: "tens" seen Santa Cruz Is Sep-Nov, poss Vanuatu breeders (Dutson 2001); this subsp? 5 between Fiji and Vanuatu Nov (Myers et al).
P. b. nov. subsp.? Breeds Solomon Is? An apparent previously undocumented form with large white patches at rump sides photographed by M. Carter Aug 2005 in Solomon Sea. See http://www.aviceda.org/abid/birdimages.php?action=birdspecies&fid=56&bid=730
bannermani Bannerman's Shearwater
Breeds Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. Eggs?
At sea near breeding locations. Cas (this taxon?) Mariana Is (Rota, Aug and Guam, Dec; Wiles et al 2000).
P. heinrothi Heinroth's
Breeds Solomon Is (Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; poss Kolombangara Wheatley 1998, Rendova, Dutson 2011). Eggs Jun? At sea in vicinity, especially east-central Bougainville (Collins), and incl Nissan, Tarburton 2006; Kolombangara Apr Flood, Thomas; Buka; Gizo; seen regularly in Mar 2012 sw of Kolombangara, Harrison 2014).
P. assimilis Little Shearwater
NOTE: Some if not all subspecies may be full species based on size, plumage differences, and in the cases of kermadecensis and haurakiensis, differing feather
lice (Holdaway et al 2001). All subspecies listed here, however, along with western Australian tunneyi, were considered subspecies of P. assimilis by Austin et al (2004) except for myrtae, which see. Southern taxon elegans, treated as a full species here and by OSNZ (2010), has a dark face, while northern assimilis and kermadecensis are white-faced. Somewhat intermediate, but mostly white-faced is haurakiensis (see HANZAB). See comments under P. bailloni, above. A specimen from the Marshall Is attributed to this species has been re-identified as P. longirostris Stejneger's Petrel (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
P. a. assimilis Breeds Norfolk I 100-1000 prs Priddel et al 2010), Lord Howe I (Most Roach I, 4000 prs, but recently on Lord Howe I, 200 prs, Priddel et al 2003). Eggs Jul. At sea Apr-Oct in vicinity, cas to NZ (w NI, 3 recs 1930s Jun, Nov, Nov, OSNZ 2010); present year-round Tasman and Coral Seas (Priddel et al 2003); records off Solomon Is (this subsp? Temotu, Dutson 2011).
P. a. kermadecensis Breeds Kermadec Is (Curtis I 100,000 prs, <1000 prs Cheeseman, Macauley 500 prs, Herald 100+ prs, extirp Raoul, Veitch et al 2004); ?Norfolk I (this subspecies? recently a few breeders smaller than assimilis have been present into summer, Christian 2005, and possibly a third form with a distinctive call occurs Apr-May, Billingham, Birding-Aus 2008). Eggs Jun-Jul. At sea in vicinity, s to NZ (n NI; fledglings wreck west coast NI Nov-Dec).
P. a. haurakiensis Breeds NZ (islands off ne NI 5000-10,000 prs, most Red Mercury >1000 prs). Eggs Jul-Aug. At sea in vicinity, south to Wellington (OSNZ 2010), but one ca. 30-31S/160W Oct (Gaskin and Wood).
P. elegans Subantarctic Little Shearwater
Breeds Chatham Is (Star Keys 100 prs; ?Little Mangere I, Aikman and Miskelly 2004), Antipodes Is 10,000-100,000 prs Tennyson et al 2002). Eggs Sep. At
sea in vicinity, incl NZ (e SI), Auckland Is and Bounty Is; poss e (non-breeders?)
May-Aug to Chile. Acc (this subsp?) New Caledonia (May and Nov, Barre and Dutson 2000), Macquarie I (Tasmania PWS; 48-51S 2 dark-faced birds late Mar and 6 birds incl 4 dark-faced and 2 light-faced at 45-46S, R. Clarke). Northern hemisphere reports are considerd unproven (Pyle- post to Hawaaiibirding, Jan 2012).