Large Petrels:

The genera Bulweria and Pseudobulweria are considered sufficiently differentiated from Pterodroma not to be included within the latter (Bretagnolle et al 1998; Penhallurick and Wink 2004); cytochrome b data in the latter paper indicate that the 3 genera included here ("Large Petrels") share a common ancestry.

Bulweria bulwerii Bulwer's Petrel
Breeds Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Marshall Is (Taongi, Amerson 1969, Pyle and Engbring 1985), Johnston I, Hawaiian Is 400,000 inds, Kiribati (Phoenix Is), Marquesas Is. Eggs variable; Jun w Hawaiian Is, Apr-Sep Marquesas Is. At sea c Pacific between 30N and 20S, incl Mariana Is (Reichel and Glass 1991); Hawaiian Is breeders to se Sep-Mar, Ogasawara Is and Iwo Is breeders also move se Sep-Apr, but poss also to Indian Ocean (movement through Wallacea Sep-Nov, Dutson 2001). Cas sw Pacific incl Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008), Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Solomon Is (Dutson 2001, Penhallurick 2003) and off US Jul and Sep (3 recs, McGrath and Feenstra 2005). Acc NZ (Jan 1998 NI). Hypo Caroline Is (Kosrae, Pohnpei, Pyle and Engbring 1985).

B. fallax Jouanin's Petrel
Acc Hawaiian Is (Sep Lisianski, Pyle 2002; Aug-Oct Midway, Pyle and Pyle 2009; near Hawaii 21 Aug 2010, Force and Webb). The presence of this species among Bulwer's Petrels in the Santa Cruz Is Nov could not be ruled out (Dutson 2001).

Pseudobulweria becki Beck's Petrel

NOTE: Sometimes considered subspecies of P. rostrata.
Breeds Solomon Is? At sea in vicinity: specimens Bismarck Arch, near Nuguria, and n of Rendova, Solomon Is; 3 recent sight recs Bismarck Arch (Hadden 2004a); reported Solomon Is (Temotu) and Vanuatu (Dutson 2011). A sighting of a small "Tahiti-like" petrel near Cato Island, Coral Sea Nov 2005 (Baxter) was rejected by the Birds Australia Records Committee and by Onley and Schofield (2007), but Pym questioned these decisions. Baker (1951) suggested a specimen collected Caroline Is, attributed to P. rostrata, could be becki. On 30 July 2007 Shirihai was chumming off Cape St George, New Ireland, and managed to attract 20-30 Pseudobulweria petrels close to the boat. Almost unbelievably, he was able to identify 20+ Becks Petrels alongside six larger Tahiti Petrels. On one day at least 30 Beck’s Petrels were seen, including 16 together. Many of the birds were recently fledged juveniles, clearly indicating that they breed in the area, and a few days later Hadoram found a dead youngster in the water, which he retrieved (Shirihai 2008; Birdwatch). In Apr 2008, several sightings off Bougainville and eastern side of New Ireland (Chris Collins, Wildwings)and in 2012 up to 58 birds near Silur in Bougainville (Bird 2012).

P. rostrata Tahiti Petrel
P. r. rostrata Breeds Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea), Marquesas Is (Hiva Oa, Tahuata, Nuku Hiva), Samoa (Tau, Olosega?), Cook Is (Rarotonga, Holyoak 1980), Gambier Is (Mangareva, Akamaru, Manui 12-16 prs, Thibault and Bretagnolle 1999), Fiji (Gau, Taveuni; Watling 2001, Plant et al 1989; est 200 prs Taveuni, Masibalavu and Dutson 2006). Eggs Oct; Jul-Oct Society Is (Tahiti, Thibault et al 1975). At sea between 30S and 7N, n to Caroline Is (Truk: Pyle and Engbring 1985, Baker 1951) and Mariana Is (Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991), e to Hawaiian Is Nov (Spear et al 1999; Pyle and Pyle 2009), Costa Rica (Zook), Mexico (eg Howell and Webb 1995), incl Revillagigedo Is and Clipperton I, and Peru in tropical Pacific.
P. r. trouessarti Breeds New Caledonia (100 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002; "hundreds or thousands of pairs" Dutson, 2011). Cas Solomon Is (Green Is, Nuguria, Tarburton 2006; Dutson 2011), Vanuatu. Eggs Oct.

P. macgillivrayi Fiji Petrel
One specimen, a fledgling Oct 1855, Fiji (Gau), but recent sightings of dark petrels in area suggest continuing presence; one caught by Watling 1984, and since 1985 7 presumed juvs have landed on roofs of houses on Gau (Watling 2001; Watling and Lewanavanua 1985); most recent Dec 2002 (Carlile). Shirihai (2008) discussed this species and possible sightings near the Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville (see also Dutson 2011), and in 2009 8 birds were seen at sea, the first such sightings on record, south of Gau (Shirihai et al 2009).

Procellaria aequinoctialis White-chinned Petrel
NOTE: A recent study (Fraser et al 2005) indicates that there are two genetically distinct groups, possibly separable at the species level. Breeders from Antipodes Is were larger than breeders at all other locations, and were named P. steadi, while P. aequinoctialis applies to the remaining populations (Auckland Is, Campbell I, south Indian and south Atlantic Oceans).
Breeds Auckland Is 10,000-50,000 prs, Campbell I 20,000 inds, Antipodes Is 100,000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002). Total individuals in Humboldt Current 722,000, with 238,000 non-breeders remaining during breeding season, suggesting NZ breeding population 484,000 inds (Spear et al 2005). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea n to 30S (one near Austral Is 29-30S Sep, Gaskin and Wood), and (probably NZ birds, Imber, in Spear et al 2005) off S. America Mar-Aug 4-48S, most 30-48S, and Nov-Jan most south of 40s (Spear et al 2005). Acc Lord Howe I (photos http://sites.google.com/site/seatosummit/ballspyramidandbirdwatching).

P. parkinsoni Black (Parkinson's) Petrel
Breeds NZ (NI: Little Barrier I 100 prs, Great Barrier I 1000 prs). The population is increasing due to predator control at breeding sites, esp Great Barrier I, and total population may be as high as 38,000, about 25,000 of these breeding birds (Spear et al 2005). Eggs Nov-Jan, most early Dec. At sea breeding season n to Fiji (but only one rec- May 2009, Pym and Hadoram), w to Australia, s to Stewart I, e to Chatham Rise (Bell et al 2007). At sea Mar-Dec to ec Pacific between Guatemala (14N, although only 8N Spear et al 2005) and Peru (14S, Spear et al 2005). Acc Galapagos Is (3 specs 1905, Swash and Still 2005). Apr 1990 fledgling Great Barrier recovered off Ecuador May 1991, May 1986 fledgling Great Barrier recovered off northern Peru Dec 1991, 1978 fledgling Great Barrier recovered off Ecuador Sep 1984 (Imber et al 2003a). Immatures prob remain in ec Pacific, esp off Ecuador until 4-5 yrs old (Imber et al 2003a). Apparent returning birds occur Oct-Nov Tasman Sea off e Australia (Palliser), and seen Sep near Austral Is 24-25S (Gaskin and Wood).

P. westlandica Westland Petrel
Breeds NZ (SI: 20,000 inds). Eggs May. At sea sw Pacific between 35S and 45S, in breeding season around NZ and w to Australia, Dec-Feb e of NZ at about 40S, to Humboldt Current where some 3500 recorded 20-52S, most south of 40S, suggesting significant numbers, as much as 90% of the total population, limited to Chilean fiords (Brinkley et al 2000; Spear et al 2005; Fraser 2009). Acc Mar Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004) and west of Rennell Apr 2007 (Brodie-Good).

P. cinerea Grey Petrel
Breeds Campbell I 10,000-50,000 prs, Antipodes Is 50,000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002; Imber et al 2005), Macquarie I 85 prs (Tas WS). Eggs Mar-Apr. At sea Nov-May n to 44S, May-Sep to 25S, 6S off S. America. One near Austral Is Sep (Gaskin and Wood). Occ Tasman Sea, incl one collected between New Caledonia and Australia (Barre and Dutson 2000).


Prions:

Cytochrome b data in Penhallurick and Wink (2004) were unable to establish the closest relatives of the Pachyptila-Halobaena group, and left it as incertae sedis.
Broad-billed, Salvin's, and Antarctic Prions are often considered separate species due to differences in bill structure, coloration, and biology (Harper 1980; Sibley and Monroe 1990; Bretagnolle et al 1990), but some authors (Harrison 1983, Cox 1980) believe Salvin's to be intermediate between the other 2, with both of which it interbreeds, and also that Broad-billed and Slender-billed are conspecific due to interbreeding where their ranges overlap. Cox (1980) noted interbreeding between Fairy and Fulmar Prions, suggesting conspecificity (Harrison 1983). Penhallurick and Wink (2004) concluded from cytochrome b data that Fairy and Fulmar Prions are best considered conspecific and separate at the species level from the remaining 4 taxa, which they considered conspecific also, thus leaving only 2 species within Pachyptila. Thus various treatments indicate as few as 2 (Penhallurick and Wink 2004) or as many as 6 species (Harper 1980; HANZAB). Herein 6 species are listed, based in part on conclusions reached by Tennyson and Bartle (2005) regarding status of Fulmar Prions, and OSNZ (2010).

Halobaena caerulea Blue Petrel
NOTE: Although resembling a small Pterodroma in behavior, its affinities otherwise are closer to Pachyptila.
Breeds Macquarie I 500-600 prs. At sea Jul-Oct n to 30S, 20S off Peru. Acc Kermadec Is (Oct Raoul, Veitch et al 2004). Eggs Oct.

Pachyptila vittata Broad-billed Prion
Breeds Chatham Is ("millions" incl Southeast I 330,000 prs), NZ (Stewart I, Codfish I, Solander Is, islands in Foveaux Strait, islands off s SI), Snares Is 2000-5000 prs. Eggs Aug-Sep. At sea in winter n to 30S around and somewhat east of NZ and off se Australia; recent studies have shown that at least a few reach southern Peru (Hidalgo-Aranzamendi et al 2010).

P. salvini Salvin's Prion
P. s. salvini At sea (juvs) Jun-Aug e to NZ between 35S and 55S.

P. desolata Dove (Antarctic) Prion

NOTE: Generally treated as monotypic (Harper 1980, Dickinson 2003, OSNZ 2010).
Breeds Macquarie I 100,000 prs, Auckland Is 50,000 prs, possibly Campbell Is (OSNZ 2010). Eggs Dec-Jan. At sea May-Aug n to 35S, to 5S off S. America. Cas Sep and Nov Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004), New Caledonia. Acc Vanuatu (specimen, Dutson 2011), Galapagos Is.

P. belcheri Thin-billed (Slender-billed) Prion
Breeds Isla Noir off Chile. May breed Macquarie I (present Jan and late Mar, R. Clarke; see Fulmar Prion). Eggs Nov. Isla Noir breeders at sea westward to sc Pacific (not as far as NZ) and n off S. America to 15S off Peru; s Atlantic and s Indian breeders at sea Jun-Sep e to NZ and n to 30S, more numerous NI than SI (Enticott and Tipling 1997; one banded Kerguelen Feb 2000 recovered SI Oct 2001, Imber 2003). Acc Jul Kermadec Is (Raoul, Veitch et al 2004), Campbell Is (OSNZ 2010). Reported Java, thus possible subtropical sw Pacific.

P. turtur Fairy Prion

NOTE: No subspecies are recognized by OSNZ (2010). Paler form subantarctica has been described breeding Antipodes I, Snares I, Macquarie I (Harper 1980; Onley and Scofield 2007; Shirihai 2002).
Breeds 1,000,000 prs NZ (Poor Knights, Stephens, Trios, Jag Rocks in Cook Strait, Sentinel Rock, The Haystack, Ninepin Rock, The Brothers, Motukiekie Rocks, Open Bay and Motunau, islets of Banks Peninsula and Otago, mainland cliffs near Dunedin Loh 2000, islands in Foveaux Strait), Chatham Is except Forty Fours and Pyramid (Mangere 40,000 prs, Star Keys, Little Mangere, Murumurus, Sisters, Rabbit I, Kokope, Aikman and Miskelly 2004), Snares Is except Western Chain 4000 prs (Miskelly et al 2001), Antipodes Is 1000-5000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002), Campbell I, Macquarie I 20 prs (OSNZ 2010; see note under Fulmar Prion). Reint NZ (Mana I). Eggs Oct-Nov. At sea sw Pacific n to 30S, including Norfolk I. Cas n to Coral Sea area, incl Jun-Sep Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), ?Kermadec Is ("prob" Jun Raoul, Veitch et al 2004).

P. crassirostris Fulmar Prion

NOTE: Tennyson and Bartle (2005) considered this taxon distinct from P. turtur; the two breed allopatrically at both the Chatham Is and Snares Is, and possibly Macquarie. Hobcroft saw a bird likely this sp. at Macquarie I in Nov; breeding on Macquarie I is uncertain; Tasmanian Wildlife Service cites 1-5 prs present, but also notes "Species like the thin-billed prion, fulmar prion, ... have also been recorded on Macquarie Island but attempts at breeding have almost certainly failed due to predation pressure" (Bryant and Jackson 1999).
P. c. crassirostris Breeds Snares Is (Western Chain- Rima, Toru) <400-600 prs (Miskelly et al 2001); Bounty Is 80,000 prs. At sea in vicinity, cas Jul-Aug to NZ. Eggs Nov.
P. c. pyramidalis This taxon often considered inseparable from crassirostris (Harper 1980, Warham 1990), but Tennyson and Bartle (2005) pointed out that it is distinctly larger. Breeds Chatham Is (Forty-fours and Pyramid 1000-5000 prs). Eggs Nov. At sea in vicinity.
P. c. flemingi Tennyson and Bartle (2005) used this name instead of eatoni, for which the type has been shown to be a mis-identified Fairy Prion collected at the Kerguelen Is. Breeds Auckland Is (<1000 prs Ewing, Ocean, Rose, Tennyson and Bartle 2005). At sea in vicinity, poss vagrant Jul-Sep to NZ (Tennyson and Bartle 2005).
P. c. subsp? At sea e to 1660 km ESE Chatham Is, furthest e rec (Enticott and Tipling 1997).


Gadfly-Petrels:

Pterodroma axillaris Chatham Island Petrel
Breeds Chatham Is (Rangatira I 100 prs, total 500-1000 inds; 55 chicks per year transferred to predator-proof area Pitt I, first returnees expected 2004-2005, Aikman and Miskelly 2004; transferred to Sweetwater Conservation Covenant 2008-2011 (Miskelly and Powlesland 2013). Eggs Dec-Jan. At sea in vicinity Dec- May, possibly mostly to south: 11 were observed off Bounty Is Jan 2000 (Shirihai 2002). Absent breeding location Jun-Nov, apparently to eastern tropical Pacific, as one photographed 820 miles w of Peru 11 Oct 2006 (Force et al 2009).

P. nigripennis Black-winged Petrel
Breeds New Caledonia (Walpole, Matthew, Barre and Dutson 2000; 1000 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002); Lord Howe I 1000 prs (Baker et al 2002), Norfolk I (Phillip I "a few hundred" prs, Norfolk I "a few", Baker et al 2002), NZ (NI: Three Kings, Motuopao, Motupia, Simmonds, Motukokako, East, Portland, OSNZ 2010; Mokohinau Is: Burgess, Ismar et al 2012), Kermadec Is (2.5 million prs Macauley, 300,000 prs Curtis, 10,000+ prs Cheeseman, 1000+ prs Herald, 200 prs L'Esperance, extirp Raoul, Veitch et al 2004), Chatham Is (Rangatira, Mangere, poss Pitt, Forty-fours, Star Keys, Jenkins and Cheshire 1982), Tonga, Cook Is (Rarotonga), Austral Is (Rapa, Bass Rocks). Eggs Kermadec Is Dec-Jan, Phillip I Dec-Jan, Lord Howe I Jan-Feb (McAllan et al 2004). At sea Oct-May vicinity of breeding locations (Jenkins and Cheshire 1982; but 2 seen se Norfolk I 21 Jul, Barnard), Apr-Dec to 30N in c Pacific, incl near Japan, Mariana Is (Pagan, Asuncion, Reichel and Glass 1991), Hawaiian Is (SE Is only, numerous year-round but most May-Dec with peak Oct-Nov, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Kiribati, Marshall Is, Fiji (incl 3 in May, Pym and Hadoram; "expected at least in s. Fijian waters Nov-Jun" Jenkins and Cheshire 1982), Tonga, Cook Is, Society Is, Marquesas Is, Easter I (Jaramillo), near Baja California and s to Peru.

P. occulta Vanuatu Petrel
Breeds Vanuatu (?Banks Is- northern Vanuatu, Imber and Tennyson 2001; Vanua Lava, Totterman 2009, Mt. Suretamatai considered "the only known breeding site", Totterman, 2012; 6 specimens collected Mere Lava Jan 1927; Bregulla 1992). At sea in vicinity (Shirihai and Bretagnolle 2010) and to Australia (Imber and Tennyson 2001); winter possibly to north Pacific (Imber and Tennyson 2001). Breeds Jan-May (Totterman 2009).

P. cervicalis White-necked (White-naped) Petrel
Breeds Kermadec Is (Macauley I 50,000 prs, extirp Raoul I, Veitch et al 2004), Norfolk I (Phillip I, 5 prs Baker et al 2002; increasing- 10-100 prs 2006, Priddel et al 2010). At sea Oct-Jun vicinity of breeding locations sw Pacific poss n as far as s Tonga, and s to NZ (Jan-Apr NI, mostly East Cape area); May-Oct n to 30N in nw Pacific (Fiji and Tonga mostly May-Jul, 6 recs Japan Jul-Sep, well offshore Mariana Is Reichel and Glass 1991, but unrecorded Palau, Caroline Is, Pyle and Engbring 1985), e to 110E incl Hawaiian Is, also Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Cook Is (Holyoak 1980). Cas Dec New Caledonia (Barre and Dutson 2000; poss P. occulta?, Dutson 2011), Jan-Mar Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004). Hypo Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985). Eggs Kermadec Is Dec-Jan (Veitch et al 2004).

P. externa Juan Fernandez Petrel
Breeds Juan Fernandez Is (Mas Afuera I 1,000,000 prs). Eggs Dec-Jan. At sea May-Nov e Pacific, from 90W to 170W, incl Hawaiian Is May-Sep (Pyle and Pyle 2009) and n Jul-Sep to 20N incl Clipperton I and Revillagigedo Is. Cas NZ (Oct 1971, Jun 2005, OSNZ 2010); present at Chatham Is (Rangatira I, Mangere I) Oct-Mar 1984-1999, including one in burrow Rangatira I Mar 1997 (Miskelly et al 2006). Acc Japan (Tokyo) Sep (Brazil 1991).

P. inexpectata Mottled Petrel
Breeds Snares Is 30,000-40,000 prs (Miskelly et al 2001),NZ (Codfish I 300,000-400,000 prs- Miskelly et al 2001; Stewart I: Big South Cape I 10,000 prs; SI: island in L Hauroko, Shag I, Front I; Solander Is). Eggs Dec. At sea c Pacific Mar-Nov (absent Snares Is Jun-Oct; non- and failed breeders leave Feb-Mar), Jun-Sep n to Alaska and Aleutians; Feb, Apr, Nov-Dec off California (McGrath and Feenstra 2005); pass through tropics Mar-May and late Sep-Nov (first seen Johnston Atoll area late Sep, good numbers early Oct, Force and Webb), incl May (south of New Caledonia) and Oct (110 birds between Grande Terre and Loyalty Is) New Caledonia (Barre and Dutson 2000), Lord Howe I Nov and Jan (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I May (R. Clarke), Hawaiian Is (almost all records Oct and Apr, Pyle and Pyle 2009), e Kiribati, Fiji-Tonga Mar-May and Oct (Jenkins 1986), but a few follow S. American coast s to Humboldt Current. Acc Oct-Nov Galapagos Is, Dec-Mar Macquarie I where may begin breeding, incl 25 on Jan 22, 2003 (R. Clarke, M. Carter).

P. hypoleuca Bonin Petrel
Breeds Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, w Hawaiian Is (Kure e to French Frigate 1,300,000 inds, 400,000 prs, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Eggs Nov-Feb. At sea Oct-Apr nw and c Pacific (May-Aug n to 40N in Japan area), incl Mariana Is (Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Dixon and Starrett 1952), Marshall Is (Pratt et al 1987), nothern Kiribati (Pratt et al 1987).

P. leucoptera Gould's Petrel

NOTE: Some authors consider P. caledonica and P. brevipes conspecific with P. leucoptera, but see Imber and Jenkins (1981). Pym noted (2009): "The possibility that P. leucoptera also breeds in Fiji cannot be excluded as apart from New Caledonia, Cabbage Tree Island (NSW, Australia), and possibly Vanuatu, the species has now been found breeding far to the east, in south-east (French) Polynesia (Bretagnolle et al. in prep.; ?Tahiti, ?Moorea, ?Raivavae, Tennyson et al 2012).
Breeds Australia (Cabbage Tree I 250-350 prs). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea near breeding location, incl Vanuatu, Jan-Apr Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004; Rohan Clarke), and Tasman Sea, incl Feb and May Norfolk I and south to 44-50S late Mar (23 inds, R. Clarke), but absent from breeding site May-Oct; one near Loyalty Is 23 Jul (Barnard); Fiji (near Taveuni Jul 2008, Pym); poss e to c Pacific (Enticott and Tipling 1997) to 10N and 90W south of Galapagos Is (250 in e Pacific Oct, Shirihai 2002).

P. caledonica New Caledonian Petrel
Breeds New Caledonia 1000+ prs (Barre and Dutson 2000), possibly Vanuatu (Efate?), Solomon Is, and Fiji and further east (Pym, above) . Eggs Dec-Jan. At sea tropical-subtropical s Pacific Nov-Jun (Taylor 2004), incl Fiji (all sightings of "Gould's Petrel" May 2009 this taxon, Pym and Shirihai 2009; 11 sightings [Jenkins 1986] thus prob also this taxon), Tonga, s to NZ (incl Stewart I; recs show Nov-Jun, Watola, contra Taylor 2004), e to waters sw of Galapagos Jul-Oct. Main migration Apr-Jun and Oct-Jan (Imber and Jenkins 1981).

P. brevipes Collared Petrel
P. b. brevipes Breeds Vanuatu (Tanna, Erromango, Banks Is: Vanua Lava; Tennyson et al 2012), Fiji (Gau, Kadavu, ?Ovalau, ?Moala, ?Taveuni, ?Koro, ?Totoya, ?Matuku, Masibalavu and Dutson 2006, Tennyson et al 2012), ?Cook Is (Rarotonga; Tennyson et al 2012); ?Am Samoa (Tau, Tutuila) Watling 2001; Masibalavu and Dutson 2006; Tennyson et al 2012). Breeding possible but unproven Solomon Is (Makira), Samoa (Upolu),Gambier Is (Mangareva), Tennyson et al 2012). Est total 1000-10,000 inds (Masibalavu and Dutson 2006). At sea to c Pacific, incl 152 nm off Queensland Nov (Baxter) and north of Norfolk I Apr (4 birds, Hansbro); "not uncommon" Mar-Apr 07-08, Collins; Oct one n of Norfolk I (Baxter), New Caledonia (9 in Oct between Makira and Santa Cruz Is; Barre and Dutson 2000, Masibalavu and Dutson 2006), Palmyra area (Aug-Sep, Force and Webb), Kiribati (Phoenix Is), Cook Is, Tuamotu Is, generally between 10N and 10S e almost to Galapagos Is. Breeding activity Vanuatu (Tanna, Vanua Lava) Apr (Bregulla 1992, Tennyson et al 2012). The taxon P. b. magnificens proposed, possibly at species level (Bretagnolle and Shirihai 2010) based on dark birds collected by Beck in 1927 off Banks Is and birds breeding Vanuatu (Banks Is: Vanua Lava?). However birds breeding on Vanua Lava shown to be P. b. brevipes, but with a "higher percentage of dark birds than other populations" (Tennyson 2011, Tennyson et al 2012). Genetic studies (Langloff 2010) were inconclusive in differentiating Vanuatu breeding populations.

P. cookii Cook's Petrel
Breeds NZ (Little Barrier I 50,000 prs, Great Barrier I 12+ prs, Codfish I 1000 prs; Imber et al 2003b). Eggs Nov-Dec. Recent tracking studies (Rayner et al 2011) show that the two populations winter in different areas of the Pacific: Codfish I. birds moved to the North Pacific, while Little Barrier birds moved to waters off South America. Little Barrier population at sea Apr-Oct to n and e Pacific, passing through tropics Jun-Aug, including one this sp or Pycroft's se Norfolk I 21 Jul (Barnard), Hawaiian Is (NW and SE Is., Jun-Nov Pyle and Pyle 2009; 17 in Hawaiian Is EEZ in period Aug-Nov- M. Force; 20-30 off Oahu Sep- Shirihai) and Kiribati, to 3 areas of concentration in n and e Pacific: s of Aleutian Is, off coast of California (Apr-Nov with peak Jul-Aug, McGrath and Feenstra 2005) and Mexico (incl Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, and Clipperton I) (Roberson and Bailey 1991a, 1991b). Probably returning to NZ, as were 5 between Fiji and Vanuatu Nov (Myers et al); Acc New Caledonia (Nov, Barre and Dutson 2000). Unsubstantiated recs Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004). Codfish population winters off Peru (Rayner et al 2011, Roberson and Bailey 1991a, 1991b); some 80+ between Pitcairn and Easter Is Nov (Pym) and one ca 30-31S 155W Oct (Gaskin and Wood) likely returning to NZ from Peru.

P. pycrofti Pycroft's Petrel
Breeds NZ (Mercury Is: Red Mercury I 1000 prs, Double I 100 prs, Stanley I, Korapuki; Hen and Chickens Is: Lady Alice I 100 prs; Poor Knights Is: Aorangi 5-10 prs, Stephenson I 5-10 prs; reint Cuvier I). Extirpated Norfolk I (McAllan et al 2004; Priddel et al 2010), Lord Howe I (assumed this sp, McAllan et al 2004). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea Apr-Dec to tropical Pacific in area 99-167W and 5S to 18N (Spear et al 1992; Howell et al 1996). One banded NZ 1992 recovered dying off north coast Papua NG May 2005 (Pierce 2009). Cas Hawaiian Is (Jun-Sep Pyle and Pyle 2009, Spear et al 1999, Pyle 2002; one in period Aug-Nov Hawaiian Is EEZ (M Force); several in late Aug in EEZ near Palmyra (Force and Webb). Unconfirmed rec Jan Tasman Sea (HANZAB), 2 in n Tasman Sea Oct 2008 (Baxter), 3 specs uncertainly from Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004), possible sighting 2-3 birds 200+ miles off California Aug 2005 (Gillson).

P. defilippiana Masatierra (De Filippi's) Petrel
Breeds Juan Fernandez Is (Isla Robinson Crusoe =Mas Atierra and Santa Clara, few), Desventuradas Is (San Ambrosio I 10,000 in 1970, San Felix I 150-200 prs 1970). Eggs? At sea in vicinity, but absent Mar-Jun, prob at sea n to 12S off Peru (Roberson and Bailey 1991a, 1991b; Howell et al 1996) and poss west to central Pacific (Shirihai 2002).

P. longirostris Stejneger's Petrel
Breeds Juan Fernandez Is (Mas Afuera 131,000 prs). Eggs Dec-Jan? At sea May-Nov to n Pacific, nw to Japan, where comon Jul-Aug (OSNZ 2010), and e (return journey?) to seas off California (Jul, Aug, Nov, McGrath and Feenstra 2005; Gillson). Cas NZ (non-breeders?) Nov-Feb), Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Hawaiian Is, mostly late Sep-mid Oct, Pyle and Pyle 2009, incl Sep n of nw Hawaiian Is (Rowlett) and Kauai (Mike Force) and 20-30 off Oahu Sep (Shirihai); 12 in Hawaiian Is EEZ in period Aug-Nov (M. Force); southward movement Aug sw Hawaiian Is around 18N 166W (Force and Webb).

P. alba Phoenix Petrel
Breeds Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), Tonga, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Pitcairn Is (Oeno I, Henderson I, Ducie I, Pitcairn I), Easter I (Jaramillo). At sea c Pacific generally near breeding locations, between 25N and 30S, incl Marshall Is (Spennemann and Benjamin 2004) and Kiribati (Gilbert Is, Amerson 1969). Cas Kermadec Is (Mar 1913 and May 1982, Veitch et al 2004), Hawaiian Is (EEZ to south in Aug- Force and Webb), Fiji (3 tentative sigtings Feb, May, Nov, Jenkins 1986; but May 2009 first confirmed rec? Pym and Hadoram), Samoa, Society Is. Acc ?Cook Is (Holyoak 1980).

P. heraldica Herald Petrel

NOTE: Considered by some authors conspecific with P. arminjoniana Trindade Petrel of the Atlantic Ocean, but see discussion in Christidis and Boles (2008).
Breeds New Caledonia (Hunter I, Chesterfield Reefs, Dutson 2011), Samoa (Tau), Tonga 100 prs (Hunga Group, Niuafoou? Recs Fakave incorrect-Watling 2001), ?Cook Is (?Rarotonga, Holyoak 1980), Marquesas Is (Ua Pu, Tahuata), Gambier Is 80-120 prs, Pitcairn Is (21,000 prs: Ducie, Henderson), Easter I (Jaramillo). Eggs mostly Mar-Sep, but also other months. At sea c and e Pacific, mostly s of equator to 30S, but rarely Oct-Jan n to 40N in c Pacific, prob incl Clipperton I and Revillagigedo Is. Cas Hawaiian Is (Mar-Jun, Aug-Nov, Pyle and Pyle 2009); 4 seen in period Aug-Nov, no specific dates, in Hawaiian Is EEZ, M. Force), Solomon Is (Dutson 2011), Vanuatu (Penhallurick 2003). Acc Fiji Jun 2008 (Cheshire 2008).

P. atrata Henderson Petrel

NOTE: Black birds ("dark phase Herald Petrels") on Henderson mate assortatively (Brooke and Rowe 1996); whereas Gambier Is populations of Herald Petrel have dark and light morphs interbreeding (Thibault and Bretagnolle 1999). Recent genetic studies support species status of atrata (see Pym).
Breeds Pitcairn Is (Henderson), Easter I (Jaramillo). At sea in vicinity; one 24-25S near Austral Is Sep (Gaskin and Wood). Six sightings NE of SE Hawaiian Is Nov-Dec may have been this taxon (Pyle and Pyle 2009).

P. sandwichensis Hawaiian Petrel

NOTE: Reports off California Apr-Aug (McGrath and Feenstra 2005; Gillson) may be this species or the next; field separation of the two is difficult.
Breeds Hawaiian Is (most SE Is., est 2900 prs, incl 1200 Kauai, 750 Maui, 600 Lanai, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Eggs Apr-May. At sea c Pacific se to 125 W, Gulf of Alaska, e to California (Pyle and Pyle 2009), but esp between Kiribati (Line Is) and Marquesas Is; westernmost for Hawaiian Is near Laysan I (Pyle and Pyle 2009); Aug- only seen within first 3 days boat travel southward from Hawaiian Is (Force and Webb). Absent from breeding locations Nov-Feb.

P. phaeopygia Galapagos Petrel

NOTE: Considered by some authors conspecific with P. sandwichensis Hawaiian Petrel (=Dark-rumped Petrel), but accumulating evidence suggests otherwise (Tomkins and Milne 1991; Browne et al 1997; Pratt and Pratt, in Scott et al 2001; AOU 2002). There are at least 3 different Galapagos populations: San Salvador, breeding Jan-Oct; Santa Maria, breeding Oct-Aug; and Santa Cruz, breeding Mar-Jan.
Breeds Galapagos Is 10,000-50,000 prs (Isabela, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz 9,000 prs, San Salvador, Santa Maria- AOU 2002). At sea ec Pacific, between Mexico and n Peru (incl Revillagigedo Is. Acc Cocos I, Montoya 2008a).

P. neglecta Kermadec Petrel
P. n. neglecta Summer and winter breeders at Kermadec Is may be genetically separable (Imber 2005). Breeds Norfolk I (Phillip I c10 prs, Baker et al 2002), Lord Howe I (Ball's Pyramid 50-100 prs, McAllan et al 2004 , extirp Lord Howe I, Baker et al 2002), Kermadec Is (Herald Is: North and South Meyer 6000 prs, Macauley 50 prs, poss few prs Haszard, Curtis, and Cheeseman Is, Tennyson et al 2003; extirp Raoul and Curtis, not breeding Haszard, Cheeseman, Veitch et al 2004); Tonga (Ata- Watling 2001), Austral Is (Rapa, Raivavae), Tuamotu Is, Pitcairn Is (Ducie, Oeno), Easter I (Jaramillo). Eggs Kermadec Is most Oct-Apr, but possible almost any month, due to presence of summer breeders (including the large now-extirpated Raoul I population of about 250,000 prs) and winter breeders; most eggs Meyer Is Feb-Apr, later than Raoul I (Oct-Nov, Imber 2005), where now extirpated, but a few Oct-Nov ("summer") breeders persist on Meyer Is (200-300 prs; these probably remnants from Raoul I population); Pitcairn I peak Feb-Mar, only 3% eggs in Nov (Imber 2005). At sea 35N-35S in most of central Pacific; n (mostly non-breeders?) to 40N, especially Nov-Jan; nw to Caroline Is (Truk) and Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985), ne to Hawaiian Is ("seen daily in small numbers" off Hawaii Aug- Rowlett; 33 in Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov- M. Force, Kure I, Midway Is, Penhallurick 2003); Fiji (regular, seen all trips May-Jul, Pym and Hadoram). Cas New Caledonia (Dutson 2011), Vanuatu, Solomon Is (Penhallurick 2003), NZ (this subsp., Sep-May, OSNZ 2010, ), Cook Is (Holyoak 1980, McCormack 2006). Acc Marshall Is Oct (Amerson 1969).
P. n. juana Breeds Juan Fernandez Is (Isla Robinson Crusoe =Mas Atierra, Santa Clara), Desventuradas Is (San Ambrosio I, San Felix I). At sea vicinity; nw to central Pacific?

P. ultima Murphy's Petrel
Breeds Austral Is (Tubuai), Gambier Is (Manui 5-10 prs- Thibault and Bretagnolle 1999), Pitcairn Is (Henderson, Ducie 250,000 prs, Oeno). Recent breeding attempt Easter I (Jaramillo). Eggs Apr-May? most locations, but fledgling at Ducie I Jan and no birds there Mar. At sea in vicinity, (non-breeders? Ducie I breeders?) Mar-Jun to 54N in n Pacific (Bailey et al 1989), off California Apr-Jun (McGrath and Feenstra 2005) and Aug (Gillson). Cas Sep-Dec Hawaiian Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Cook Is (Rarotonga? spec, Gill 1996), Fiji May 2009 (Pym and Hadoram).

P. solandri Providence Petrel

NOTE: Includes P. phillipii Mount Pitt Petrel (Penhallurick 2003).
Breeds Lord Howe I (100,000 inds, Christian 2005; 27000 prs, Baker et al 2002) , Norfolk I (Phillip I 60-100 inds, Christian 2005; extirp Norfolk I, Baker et al 2002). Eggs May-Jun. At sea Mar-Nov w Tasman; unknown number, probably immatures (McAllan et al 2004), Nov-Feb to nw Pacific, reported from New Caledonia (Dutson 2011), Solomon Is (w to near Buka Aug, Shirihai 2008), Vanuatu (Penhallurick 2003), Palau (one record? Pratt and Etpison 2008), east of Japan (McAllan et al 2004), returning due south Mar. Possible May-Sep ne Pacific (Bailey et al 1989), one off California Aug (Gillson). Acc Fiji (2 recs, incl Mar 2009, Gaskin); NZ (NI Jan Muriwai, May off North Cape, Sep w coast).

P. mollis Soft-plumaged Petrel

NOTE: Subspecific determination of s hemisphere populations (mollis and dubia) is unsettled; opinions differ as to which race breeds at Antipodes Is, although thought to be pale-mantled mollis (HANZAB).
P. m. mollis? Breeds Antipodes Is 1000-5000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002), Macquarie I 50 prs (Tasmania WS; daily off North Head Oct, max 22 on 29 Oct 2002, daily Dec- R. Clarke). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea in vicinity and n to NZ (NI) May-Jun and Aug-Dec, but seen 24-25S near Austral Is Sep 2006 (Gaskin and Wood).

P. macroptera Great-winged (Grey-faced) Petrel
P. m. gouldi Breeds NZ (mainland and islands off NI incl Whale I 30,00-40,000 prs). At sea sw Pacific between 26S (Barnard), 30-31S (Gaskin and Wood), and 50S, e to 130W, incl Tasman Sea to Australia (Palliser) and Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004). Cas Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991, Mar-Jan McAllan 2004), Norfolk I . Acc waters to s of Fiji (Watling 2001), poss off California (OSNZ 2010). Eggs Jun-Jul.
P. m. macroptera At sea (this subsp?) western Tasman Jun-Jul. No NZ or s Pacific records (Imber, pers. comm.), but one ca. 29-30S/155w sw of Austral Is Sep (Gaskin and Wood); dark-faced birds Macquarie I Feb may be nominate subspecies (M. Carter).

P. magentae Magenta Petrel (Chaham Island Taiko)

NOTE: Lawrence et al (2009) described a previously mis-identified specimen, only the 4th known; DNA studies placed magentae in a clade with macroptera, incerta, and lessonii.
Breeds Chatham Is (Chatham I 10-15 prs, 100-150 inds, Aikman and Miskelly 2004; 35 active burrows 2005-2006, Southern bird #26; 13 chicks from Tuku Reserve translocated and fledged early 2008 from new protected 4-hectare enclosure Sweetwater Conservation Covenant on Chatham I.). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea May-Sep, tracking data show widespread southern Pacific (Taylor et al 2011). Possible sightings 5 Aug 1995 in area of Juan Fernandez Is and Mar 1992 150 km west of Chile at 28-29S (Howell et al 1996); seen Apr 2001 about 44S and 173E 53 km se Banks Peninsula over shelf edge, (Imber et al 2005).

P. lessonii White-headed Petrel
Breeds Macquarie I 1,000 prs, Auckland Is 200,000 prs, Antipodes Is 100,000-300,000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea Jun-Sep n to 30S (21 Jul se Norfolk I, Barnard), 24S off Chile Aug (Howell et al 1996), 24-25S near Austral Is Sep (Gaskin and Wood), Jun-Jul Pitcairn Is (Brooke 2008). Cas Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991, May and "winter", McAllan et al 2004), Society Is (17 N, Tetiaroa Jul, Russell et al 2015), Gambier Is (Tekava Aug, Russell et al 2015), Austral Is (Tubuai Jul, Rurutu Jul, Russell et al 2015).