Breeds Auckland Is 10,000-50,000 prs, Campbell I 20,000 inds, Antipodes Is 100,000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002). Total individuals in Humboldt Current 722,000, with 238,000 non-breeders remaining during breeding season, suggesting NZ breeding population 484,000 inds (Spear et al 2005). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea n to 30S (one near Austral Is 29-30S Sep, Gaskin and Wood), and (probably NZ birds, Imber, in Spear et al 2005) off S. America Mar-Aug 4-48S, most 30-48S, and Nov-Jan most south of 40s (Spear et al 2005). Acc Lord Howe I (photos http://sites.google.com/site/seatosummit/ballspyramidandbirdwatching).
P. parkinsoni Black (Parkinson's) Petrel
Breeds NZ (NI: Little Barrier I 100 prs, Great Barrier I 1000 prs). The population is increasing due to predator control at breeding sites, esp Great Barrier I, and total population may be as high as 38,000, about 25,000 of these breeding birds (Spear et al 2005). Eggs Nov-Jan, most early Dec. At sea breeding season n to Fiji (but only one rec- May 2009, Pym and Hadoram), w to Australia, s to Stewart I, e to Chatham Rise (Bell et al 2007). At sea Mar-Dec to ec Pacific between
Guatemala (14N, although only 8N Spear et al 2005) and Peru (14S, Spear et al 2005). Acc Galapagos Is (3 specs 1905, Swash and Still 2005). Apr 1990 fledgling Great Barrier recovered off Ecuador May 1991, May 1986 fledgling Great Barrier recovered off northern Peru Dec 1991, 1978 fledgling Great Barrier recovered off Ecuador Sep 1984 (Imber et al 2003a). Immatures prob remain in ec Pacific, esp off Ecuador until 4-5 yrs old (Imber et al 2003a). Apparent returning birds occur Oct-Nov Tasman Sea off e Australia (Palliser), and seen Sep near Austral Is 24-25S (Gaskin and Wood).
P. westlandica Westland Petrel
Breeds NZ (SI: 20,000 inds). Eggs May. At sea sw Pacific between 35S and 45S, in breeding season around NZ and w to Australia,
Dec-Feb e of NZ at about 40S, to Humboldt Current where some 3500 recorded 20-52S, most south of 40S, suggesting significant numbers, as much as 90% of the total population, limited to Chilean fiords (Brinkley et al 2000; Spear et al 2005; Fraser 2009). Acc Mar Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004) and west of Rennell Apr 2007 (Brodie-Good).
P. cinerea Grey Petrel
Breeds Campbell I 10,000-50,000 prs, Antipodes Is 50,000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002; Imber et al 2005), Macquarie I 85 prs (Tas WS). Eggs Mar-Apr. At sea
Nov-May n to 44S, May-Sep to 25S, 6S off S. America. One near Austral Is Sep (Gaskin and Wood). Occ Tasman Sea, incl one collected between New Caledonia and Australia (Barre and Dutson 2000).
Diving-Petrels:Breeds NZ (SI: Codfish I 60-70 prs, poss fewer than 150 inds (NZBO); extirpated Stewart I, Worthy 1998, and Auckland Is, OSNZ 1990); Macquarie I (3-4 prs Bishop and Clerk I, status currently unknown, Baker et al 2002); subfossil records Chatham Is (Chatham; Worthy 1998). Eggs Nov. At sea in vicinity, but apparently feeds further offshore along the edge of the continental shelf than P. urinatrix (Imber and Nilsson 1980).
Recent genetic studies (Cracraft 2013, Prum et al. 2015, SACC 687) show that the former Pelecanoididae are "nestled" within Procellariidae, as was earlier suggested by Christidis and Boles (2008). Boyd includes them in his subfamily Pelecanoidinae with Prions and Kerguelen Petrel, while IOC v7.1 places them after Puffinus. With a slight nod to Boyd, here they are placed prior to the Prions.
Pelecanoides garnotii Peruvian Diving-Petrel
At sea off Peru and Chile between 6S and 37S; cas over 200 miles offshore?
P. magellani Magellanic Diving-Petrel
At sea off Chile; first seen 600+ miles west of Cape Horn on eastward boat journey Feb 2004 (Stephenson).
P. georgicus South Georgian Diving-Petrel
P. urinatrix Common Diving-Petrel
P. u. urinatrix Breeds NZ 100,000-1,000,000 prs (islands off NI and in Cook Strait). Eggs Aug-Sep. At sea in vicinity.
P. u. chathamensis Breeds Chatham Is (most Rangatira/Southeast I, 164,000 prs, possibly far fewer, Aikman and Miskelly 2004), NZ (Solander Is, islands off Stewart I), Snares
Is 250,000 prs (Miskelly et al 2001). Eggs Sep-Oct. At sea in vicinity, but
absent May-Aug onshore Snares Is.
P. u. exsul Breeds Macquarie I 20 prs, Auckland Is, Campbell I, Antipodes Is "possibly a few 100,000s" (Tennyson et al 2002). Eggs Oct. At sea in
Cytochrome b data in Penhallurick and Wink (2004) were unable to establish the closest relatives of the Pachyptila-Halobaena group, and left it as incertae sedis.
Broad-billed, Salvin's, and Antarctic Prions are usually considered separate species due to differences in bill structure, coloration, and biology (Harper 1980; Sibley and Monroe 1990; Bretagnolle et al 1990), but some authors (Harrison 1983, Cox 1980) believe Salvin's to be intermediate between the other 2, with both of which it interbreeds, and also that Broad-billed and Slender-billed are conspecific due to interbreeding where their ranges overlap. Cox (1980) noted interbreeding between Fairy and Fulmar Prions, suggesting conspecificity (Harrison 1983). Penhallurick and Wink (2004) concluded from cytochrome b data that Fairy and Fulmar Prions are best considered conspecific and separate at the species level from the remaining 4 taxa, which they considered conspecific also, thus leaving only 2 species within Pachyptila. Thus various treatments indicate as few as 2 (Penhallurick and Wink 2004) or as many as 6 species (Harper 1980; HANZAB). Herein 6 species are listed, based in part on conclusions reached by Tennyson and Bartle (2005) regarding status of Fulmar Prions, and OSNZ (2010); this position is taken by current authories also (IOC v7.1, Boyd).
Halobaena caerulea Blue Petrel