FREGATIDAE (4 species)

F. ariel Lesser Frigatebird
F. a. ariel Breeds ?Caroline Is (?Kosrae, ?Yap, Baker 1951, Pyle and Engbring 1985), ?Palau (Helen I one record, Pratt and Etpison 2008), ?Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Hawaiian Is (1 rec: 1998 French Frigate Shoals, Pyle and Pyle 2009), Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Nonouti, Onotoa, Amerson 1969; Phoenix Is; Line Is), Samoa (Rose I, Watling 2001), Solomon Is (atolls n of Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Nuguria, Dutson 2011), New Caledonia 250 prs (Surprise, Walpole, Chesterfields, Barre and Dutson 2000), Fiji, ?Wallis and Futuna (Thibault et al 2015), Tonga, Cook Is (Penrhyn <100 prs, Suwarrow 1000-10,000 prs, Holyoak 1980), Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Gambier Is. Eggs variable, most Apr-May Christmas I. At sea sw Pacific between 30N and 25S, incl Palau, Vanuatu, Nauru (more common than F. minor, 5 recoveries banded Phoenix Is and Howland I, Buden 2008), Hawaiian Is (annual NW Is, cas SE Is, Pyle and Pyle 2009), e to Tuamotu Is. Cas Mariana Is (breeding Maug considered hypo, Reichel and Glass 1991, Pyle and Engbring 1985), Caroline Is (Kosrae Hayes et al 2016), mostly Nov-Mar Lord Howe I (but McAllan et al 2004 cite only one positive record), Norfolk I, Kermadec Is (this sp? Veitch et al 2004), NZ (about 30 records, OSNZ 2010, incl Chatham Is, Miskelly et al 2006).

Fregata magnificens Magnificent Frigatebird
Breeds Revillagigedo Is (San Benedicto 100 prs, Pitman and Ballance 2002; ?Socorro, Jehl and Parkes 1982), Malpelo I, Galapagos Is (Genovesa, San Cristobal, Seymour, Isabela, Penhallurick 2003; 1000 prs, Swash and Still 2005). Eggs variable. At sea vicinity and to seas off Costa Rica (incl Cocos I, Dean and Montoya 2005), Colombia. Cas Guadalupe I.

F. minor Great Frigatebird

NOTE: The taxonomic situation in the w and c Pacific is currently unclear. However information provided by David James shows that Coral Sea birds differ subspecifically from Hawaiian Is birds. Although these populations are usually included in palmerstoni, Coral Sea birds are probably best separated as chambeyroni (which takes precedence over peninsulae and mathewsi for this population, David James). If Hawaiian birds also differ from palmerstoni, then strumosa would apply to Hawaiian birds. The status of minor in the w Pacific is unclear as little is known of the birds breeding on the Paracel Is in the South China Sea (David James). Brazil (1991) stated that stragglers to the Japan area were minor.
F. m. strumosa Breeds Hawaiian Is (NW Is 10,345 prs, SE Is prob Niihau, one rec Oahu, Pyle and Pyle 2009). At sea vicinity and southwestward but low numbers >9 km from shore (Pyle and Pyle 2009); tagged birds from Hawaiian Is (Midway: Sand I) found Philippines, Wake I, Johnston I (Pyle 2000). Large roosts Hawaiian Is (SE Is 1000+ Oahu summer, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Eggs Mar-Apr.
F. m. palmerstoni (includes peninsulae) Breeds Palau (this subsp? Fana, ?Merir, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (Truk, Pohnpei, ?Kosrae, ?Yap, this subsp? Pyle and Engbring 1985, Hayes et al 2016), Solomon Is (atolls n of Bougainville, Hadden 2004a; Nuguria, Dutson 2011), New Caledonia (Surprise, Chesterfield, Walpole, Dutson 2011), Wake I, Johnston Atoll, Marshall Is (Taongi, Bikar, Mili, Amerson 1969), Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is, vis Gilbert Is), Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Tubuai Is, Gambier Is, Fiji, ?Wallis and Futuna (Thibault et al 2015), Samoa, Tonga, Tokelau Is (Penhallurick 2003), Niue, Cook Is (Takutea 90 prs, extirp Palmerston, Holyoak 1980), Pitcairn Is, ?Easter I, Desventurada Is (Sala-y-Gomez I). At sea between 25N and 30S, juveniles dispersive, incl Nauru (recovery banded Phoenix Is, Buden 2008), Tuvalu, Tokelau Is, Wallis and Futuna, Vanuatu (but see F. m. minor and F. m. chambeyroni). Eggs year round depending on location.
F. m. chambeyroni Breeds New Caledonia 50 prs (Surprise, Walpole, Chesterfields, Barre and Dutson 2000). At sea sw Pacific to ne Australia n to Mariana Is (Rota, S, Smith, Klauber; but considered rare Pyle and Engbring 1985, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is, and Marshall Is (Condon 1975). Cas Solomon Is ("vagrant" Pinipel, occurs Nissan and Nuguria, Tarburton 2006; Aug-Sep Buka, Gregory), NZ (20 recs, most summer, Watola). Acc Norfolk I (Feb, Moore 1999; Mar, Duranti).
F. m. ridgwayi Breeds Revillagigedo Is (San Benedicto 165 prs, Pitman and Ballance 2002; ?Clarion, Brattstrom and Howell 1956), Cocos I (1000 pairs Montoya 2008a), Galapagos Is ("few thousand pairs", Swash and Still 2005). Eggs variable; in Galapagos Is breeds Feb-Aug on Genovesa, Apr-Nov on Espanola (Harris 1974). Cas Clipperton I ("never been known to nest" Pitman and Ballance 2002).
F. m. minor Cas Ogasawara Is and Iwo Is mainly Jul-Nov, acc s Izu Is (Brazil 1991).

F. andrewsi Christmas Island Frigatebird
Acc Solomon Is (adults Rennell Sep, New Georgia Jul, Dutson 2001).

SULIDAE (9 species)

Morus capensis Cape Gannet
Acc NZ (NI: Cape Kidnappers Dec 1997-Sep 2005, Medway 2001, Robertson and Stephenson 2005). Hybrid chicks fledged 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 seasons; latter chick seen incubating Oct 2005 (Robertson and Stephenson 2005).

M. serrator Australasian Gannet
Breeds Norfolk I (Philip I 3-4 prs, Christian 2005, Priddel et al 2010), NZ (NI 47,000+ prs, incl Three Kings Is 9900 prs, Poor Knights Is 4200 prs, Mokohinau Is 350 prs, Great Barrier I 2700 prs, Coromandel Peninsula 7200 prs, Muriwai 2200 prs, White I 6800 prs, Kawhia (Karewa) 8000 prs, Tolaga Bay 600 prs, Cape Kidnappers 5200 prs; SI 700 prs, incl Farewell Spit (Shellbanks 608 prs), Marlborough Sds (Waimaru Point 185 prs, Arapawa I 45 prs, Brown and Wilson 2004), Otago (The Nuggets 9 prs), Solander I 62 prs (Penhallurick 2003). Eggs Aug-Nov. At sea vicinity and Tasman Sea, widest dispersal Mar-Jun; imms stay in n. Tasman a few years (Stephenson). Vis Lord Howe I (May-Sep and Jan, McAllan et al 2004). Cas Chatham Is (one breeding record, Miskelly et al 2006), Auckland Is, Campbell I. Acc New Caledonia (one banded Norfolk I Dec 1994 recovered Belep Jan 1996, Barre and Dutson 2000), Macquarie I (Tasmania PWS).

Papasula abbotti Abbott's Booby
Acc Mariana Is (Rota Apr 2007, Pratt et al 2009); still present May 2011 (Silcock, and Dec 2012 (Buschow, eBird).

Sula sula Red-footed Booby
S. s. rubripes Breeds islands of tropical Pacific: Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Mariana Is (Rota, Medinilla, Guguan, Pagan, Maug, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau (Southwwest Is- Fana, Helen, 90% white morph, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (Truk, Pohnpei), Wake I, Marshall Is (Taongi, Bikar, Taka, Jemo, Erikub, Mili, Bikini, Jaluit, Amerson 1969), Hawaiian Is 12,400 prs mostly light morphs Pyle and Pyle 2009, Solomon Is (Nuguria, Takuu, Nukumanu, Hadden 2004b; Ontong Java, Sikaiana, Rennell, Tikopia, Anuta, Nupani, Dutson 2011), Vanuatu, New Caledonia (Chesterfields, Walpole, Hunter, Barre and Dutson 2000; 10-30 prs Southern Lagoon, Benoit and Bretagnolle 2002; Ilot Coco, Dutson 2011), Kiribati (Gilbert Is: Onotoa, Amerson 1969, Phoenix Is, Line Is), Tokelau Is, Tuvalu, Fiji, Wallis and Futuna (Thibault et al 2015), Samoa, Tonga, Cook Is (Penrhyn <100 prs, Rakahanga <100 prs, Manihiki <100 prs, Pukapuka <100 prs, Suwarrow 1000-10,000 prs, Takutea 100-1000 prs, extirp Palmerston, Holyoak 1980), Niue, Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Tubuai Is, Gambier Is, Pitcairn Is, Sala-y-Gomez I. Eggs variable. At sea between 30N and 30S; juveniles more dispersive than adults. Acc Mar 1900 Nauru (Frahnert and Buden 2008; Buden 2008), Jan Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004).
S. s. websteri Breeds 250,000 prs Galapagos Is (Genovesa, Culpepper, Wenman, Gardner, Punta, Pitt), Revillagigedo Is (Clarion 2000 prs Wanless et al 2009, Brattstrom and Howell 1956; San Benedicto 200-300 prs, Pitman and Ballance 2002), Clipperton I, Cocos I ("thousands of pairs" Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008a). Eggs variable. At sea between 30N and 30S, casually to s. California (McGrath and Feenstra 2005). One reported near Volcano Is 13-14 May 2011 (Brodie-Good).

S. leucogaster Brown Booby

NOTE: Genetic separation of eastern breeders from those elsewhere in the Pacific was discussed by Steeves et al (2003); recent colonization of Revillagigedo Is (San Benedicto) by birds resembling plotus was discussed by Pitman and Ballance (2002), who stated "at least some of the breeding Brown Boobies (Sula leucogaster ...) are from central Pacific populations".
S. l. plotus Breeds Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, s Izu Is, Mariana Is (all except Agrihan, Alamagan, Sarigan, Anatahan, Saipan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Palau (Southwest Is- Helen, Fana, Pratt and Etpison 2008), Caroline Is (Truk and Pohnpei; vis Yap and Kosrae, Penhallurick 2003, Hayes et al 2016), Solomon Is (Nuguria, Takuu, Nukumanu, Hadden 2004b; Ramos, Ontong Java, Dutson 2011), Vanuatu (near Efate, Dutson 2011), New Caledonia (Chesterfields, Tiga, Matthew, Walpole, Hunter, Barre and Dutson 2000, Dutson 2011), Wake I, Johnson Atoll (Pyle and Pyle 2009), Marshall Is (Bikar, Jemo, Likiep, Erikub, Mili, Eniwetok, Jaluit, Amerson 1969; Ebon, Spennemann and Benjamin 2004), Hawaiian Is 3000 inds (1425 prs Pyle and Pyle 2009), Kiribati (Line Is, vis Phoenix and Gilbert Is, Amerson 1969, Penhallurick 2003), Wallis and Futuna, Samoa (Tutuila and Manua, Aleipata Is, Parrish and Sherley 2012), vis only Savaii and Upolu, Tarburton 2001), Fiji incl Rotuma, Wallis and Futuna (Uvea, Thibault et al 2015), Tokelau Is, Tonga, Cook Is (Penrhyn <100 prs, Pukapuka <100 prs, Suwarrow 500+ prs, Takutea <100 prs, Holyoak 1980), Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Tubuai Is (Rapa, Penhallurick 2003), Gambier Is, and Pitcairn Is. Recent colonization of Revillagigedo Is (San Benedicto, Pitman and Ballance 2002) by dark-headed birds resembling this subspecies. Vis only Niue, Tuvalu (Watling 2001). Eggs year round. At sea between 30N and 30S, occasionally 45S (OSNZ 2010), range apparently separated from those of subspecies below. Juveniles more dispersive than adults. Vis Nauru (2 recoveries on Nauru Mar and Dec banded Hawaiian Is (Oahu) and Johston Atoll, Buden 2008). Cas Lord Howe I (4 recs Feb-May McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I, Kermadec Is May, Jul, Aug, Oct, Veitch et al 2004), NZ mostly Feb-May; a juvenile banded Johnston I collected off Okarito 1986 (OSNZ 2010). One banded Johnston I recovered Fiji 5 months later (Watling 2001).
S. l. brewsteri Breeds Revillagigedo Is incl San Benedicto 300 prs (Pitman and Ballance 2002), Clipperton I 15,000 inds (Clipperton I breeders sometimes separated as S. l. nesiotes), Cocos I ("hundreds of pairs" Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008a). Eggs year round. At sea vicinity, northwards (>200 miles offshore?) regularly Jul-Oct to s. California (McGrath and Feenstra 2005) and casually further (Gillson). Cas central Pacific (Hawaiian Is: 20+ records, Pyle and Pyle 2009; Johnston Atoll, Wake I, Palmyra, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Galapagos Is (1 rec, Swash and Still 2005).
S. l. etesiaca At sea off C. America and Colombia; cas >200 miles offshore? One Hawaiian Is (Oahu Mar 2009 poss this taxon, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

S. nebouxii Blue-footed Booby
S. n. nebouxii At sea off coasts from California (rarely, McGrath and Feenstra 2005) to Peru; cas >200 miles?
S. n. excisa Breeds Galapagos Is 10,000 prs (except Wenman, Culpepper, Pinta, Marchena, Genovesa). Eggs year round. At sea in vicinity and between n Mexico and Peru; cas Cocos I (2 recs, one in Apr, Dean and Montoya 2005), Revillagigedos Is (Jehl and Parkes 1982; Howell and Webb 1995). Hypo Hawaiian Is (Pyle and Pyle 2009).

S. variegata Peruvian Booby
At sea off S. America. Cas >200 miles. Acc Galapagos Is (San Cristobal Jun 2014, Manning

S. dactylatra Masked Booby
S. d. personata Breeds Mariana Is (Medinilla, Guguan, Maug, Uracas, Reichel and Glass 1991, ?Saipan,?Agiguan, ?Tinian), Wake I, Marshall Is (Taongi, Bikar, Amerson 1969), Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian Is (7000 inds, 2215 prs NW Is 200-400 prs SE Is Pyle and Pyle 2009), Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), New Caledonia (Doughty et al 1999; islets in Southern Lagoon, Carrey, Barre and Dutson 2000; Chesterfield, Surprise, Dutson 2011), Fiji (Vatulele, Nukucikobia, Watling 2001), Samoa (Rose Atoll), Tonga (Ata), Cook Is (Suwarrow 20 prs, Holyoak 1980), Tuamotu Is, Pitcairn Is. Eggs year round, most Jan-May Kure Atoll. At sea between 30N and 30S tropical Pacific. Cas Palau, Caroline Is (Chuuk, Wiles et al 2000), Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998), Tuvalu. Acc Ogasawara Is.
S. d. californica Breeds Revillagigedo Is (San Benedicto 1988 prs, Pitman and Ballance 2002; Clarion 100 prs, Wanless et al 2009, Brattstrom and Howell 1956), Clipperton I, Cocos I (20 prs, Dean and Montoya 2005, Montoya 2008a). Eggs variable. At sea vicinity, rarely n. to s. California (McGrath and Feenstra 2005).
S. d. tasmani

NOTE: This is a dark-eyed subspecies. The "Tasman Booby" of Lord Howe I has been treated as a separate species; it was thought to be distinctively larger than extant subspecies fullagari by Van Tets et al (1988). More recently, Holdaway et al (2001), believed material used by Van Tets et al (1988) was from the upper mensural range of extant birds (McAllan et al 2004, Worthy and Holdaway 2002, Priddel et al 2005). If tasmani is treated as a subspecies, tasmani takes precedence over fullagari (Steeves et al 2010).
Breeds Lord Howe I, Norfolk I (Philip I 300 prs, Priddel et al 2010), Kermadec Is (100 prs Macauley, 70 prs Curtis, <50 prs Herald, <20 prs Cheeseman, Veitch et al 2004). Eggs year round, but peak Jun-Jul Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Sep Norfolk I, Sep-Oct Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004). At sea generally disperse n with little overlap of breeding populations; Kermadec Is birds disperse n to Vanuatu and Solomon Is, Lord Howe I birds to e coast Australia but with banding recoveries at Solomon Is (Hutton 1991) and New Caledonia (Carlile). One banded Norfolk I (Nepean I) recovered Tonga (Moore 1999); 39 recoveries mostly northward: 17 Vanuatu, 5 Kermadec Is, 4 New Caledonia, 3 Queensland, Priddel et al 2010). Cas (presumably tasmani) NZ (NI Oct-Jul).

S. granti Nazca Booby

NOTE: Evidence for specific status was presented by Pitman and Jehl (1998) and Friesen et al (2002).
Breeds Revillagigedo Is (Clarion 1 pr? Wanless et al 2009, Brattstrom and Howell 1956; San Benedicto 50 prs, Pitman and Ballance 2002), Clipperton I (Howell and Webb 1995 note that S. granti breeding at San Benedicto and Clipperton generally mate only assortatively with Masked Booby), Malpelo I, Galapagos Is (25-50,000 prs, Swash and Still 2005), Desventuradas Is (San Felix, San Ambrosio), Sala-y-Gomez I, Juan Fernandez Is. Eggs year round, but synchronized by colony (Castro and Phillips 1996). At sea between 30N and 30S. Cas n to S. California? (McGrath and Feenstra 2005; Roberson 1998), Hawaiian Is (French Frigate Shoals 2005-2008, Feb 2006 Oahu, Apr 2008 Midway, Pyle and Pyle 2009). Acc Cocos I (Montoya 2012).


Taxonomy of this family is based herein on Kennedy and Spencer (2014); these authors found 7 clades within "Phalacrocoracidae" which they designated genera. Previous attempts to classify members of Phalacrocoracidae (Siegel-Causey 1988, Kennedy et al 2001) had been confounded by convergent evolution. Current authors (IOC v7.2, Boyd) do not recognize the 7 clades listed in Kennedy and Spencer (2014) as genera, although IOC v7.2 is reviewing Kennedy and Spencer (2014) and Boyd notes 6 of the 7 genera (referred to by him as subgenera) proposed by Kennedy and Spencer (2014) in his "Cormorant tree". Boyd's exception is Nannopterum, which he includes within Phalacrocorax, based, oddly, on Kennedy (2009). Herein the 7 genera of Kennedy and Spencer (2014) are used, if for no other reason to indicate the genetic relationships found by these authors.

Microcarbo melanoleucos Little Pied Cormorant
NOTE: Christidis and Boles (2008) provided genetic data that segregate the "micro-cormorants" as a basal divergence. Status of NZ birds is controversial; adults are dimporhic (black with white throat or white-breasted as in melanoleucos) with relatively few intermediates; white-breasted NZ birds may result from periodic influxes from Australia (OSNZ 2010). Perhaps relevant to the influx concept is that 60% of birds in the far north of the NI are white-breasted, 32% in Auckland, 15% in the lower NI, and only 8% in the SI, Heather and Robertson 1996). It has also been suggested that white-throated NZ birds are specifically distinct (van Tets, in HANZAB); a black juvenile form is restricted to NZ.
M. m. melanoleucos Res Palau, Solomon Is (except Rennell, but incl Santa Cruz Is and Bougainville, Hadden 2004a), New Caledonia. Cas Mariana Is (Saipan, Pagan, Reichel and Glass 1991), Caroline Is (Mar Yap-Wiles 1987), Vanuatu, Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004), Norfolk I, NZ (bred Campbell I 1967-69, pied birds at Snares poss from Australia 1975-77, 1982-85, OSNZ 2010).
M. m. brevicauda This taxon is quite distinct from other subspecies (Mayr and Diamond 2001). Res Solomon Is (Rennell).
M. m. brevirostris Res 5000-10,000 prs NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Campbell I. Cas Snares Is, Auckland Is. Acc Chatham Is (Chatham, Miskelly et al 2006).

Urile pelagicus Pelagic Cormorant
NOTE: Formerly included in separate genus Stictocarbo. Now included in Urile per Kennedy and Spencer (2014).
P. p. subsp? At sea extreme nw Pacific. Acc Hawaiian Is (3 recs Oct-Jan Midway I, Laysan I, Pyle 2002, Pyle and Pyle 2009).

U. penicillatus Brandt's Cormorant
NOTE: Included in Urile per Kennedy and Spencer (2014).
Breeds Guadalupe I. Cas offshore to edge of Continental Shelf (see eBird).

Phalacrocorax capillatus Japanese Cormorant
Acc Ogasawara Is.

P. carbo Great Cormorant

NOTE: Australian P. c. carboides and NZ P. c. steadi are included within P. c. novaehollandiae by IOC v7.2 and NZBO), but this not followed by OSNZ (2010); herein we follow OSNZ (2010) by retaining steadi, although dispersal across Tasman Sea in both directions might indicate gene flow (see below).
P. c. steadi Res 5000-10,000 "mature individuals" (NZBO) NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is 233 prs (Bell and Bell 2000). Vis Lord Howe I (this taxon or next; long-distance dispersal both directions across Tasman Sea, and one banded NZ recovered Lord Howe I; one banded NSW recovered in NZ; McAllan et al 2004; imm Mar, Gregory). Cas Norfolk I, Nov Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004), Snares Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I.
P. c. novaehollandiae Res Solomon Is (Rennell: L Tenggano, this subsp- Mayr and Diamond 2001; first bred there 1994); New Caledonia (Grande Terre; first seen 2001, bred May-Sep, Barre and Geraux 2004). Acc Solomon Is (this subsp? Gizo, Dutson 2011).
P. c. hanedae (included in P. c. sinensis by some authors) Acc Ogasawara Is (Mukojima), Caroline Is (this subsp? Mar Yap, Wiles et al 1987), Mariana Is (Pagan, hypo Guam, Reichel and Glass 1991).

P. varius Pied Cormorant
P. v. hypoleucos Cas Lord Howe I (2 recs Apr, McAllan et al 2004).
P. v. varius Res 1000-5000 "mature adults" (NZBO) NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I). Cas Snares Is.

P. sulcirostris Little Black Cormorant
Res 1000-5000 prs NZ (NI, n SI), New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Barre and Bachy 2003, Dutson 2011). Cas NZ (Stewart I), Solomon Is (Oct-Jan Bougainville, Hadden 2004a), New Caledonia (Chesterfield, Dutson 2011), Lord Howe I (McAllan et al 2004; about 11 in Mar 2005, Gregory), Norfolk I. Acc NZ (Stewart I, Snares I, NZBO), Fiji (Kadavu, pres a year through Nov 2004, Cherry 2005), Palau (Pratt and Etpison 2008). Reported without substantiation Kermadec Is (Veitch et al 2004) and Chatham Is (Miskelly et al 2006).

P. featherstoni Pitt Island Shag
NOTE: This species was formerly included in Stictocarbo, but now in Phalacrocorax per Kennedy and Spencer (2014). Res Chatham Is 729 prs (Bell and Bell 2000), although declined to 547 pairs 2003-2004 (Bester and Charteris 2005).

P. punctatus Spotted Shag
NOTE: This species was formerly included in Stictocarbo, but now in Phalacrocorax per Kennedy and Spencer (2014). Total pop 60,000-150,000 prs.
P. p. punctatus Res NZ 50,000-100,000 inds (NI, n and e SI).
P. p. oliveri (=steadi, which was pre-occupied) Res NZ 10,000-50,000 inds (w and s SI, Stewart I). Acc (this subsp?) Jan Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).

Nannopterum auritus Double-crested Cormorant
NOTE: This species was formerly included in Phalacrocorax, but Kennedy and Spencer (2014) showed its close genetic relationship to Neotropic Cormorant N. brasilianus and Flightless (Galapagos) Cormorant N. harrisi. N. a. albociliatus Acc Revillagigedo Is? (Dickinson 2003; AOU 1983, but not 1998; needs verification, Howell and Webb 1995; no definite record, Brattstrom and Howell 1956).

N. harrisi Flightless (Galapagos) Cormorant

Res <1000 prs Galapagos Is (Fernandina, Isabela). Vis Galapagos Is (James, Santa Cruz, Floreana, Penhallurick 2003).
Leucocarbo ranfurlyi Bounty Shag
NOTE: Taxonomy of species generally included in Leucocarbo is unsettled; herein we follow Kennedy and Spencer (2014). Res Bounty Is 569 prs. One reported Snares Is Apr-May 1997 prob colensoi (Miskelly et al 2001a, 2001b). Acc Nov Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002).

L. carunculatus New Zealand King (Rough-faced) Shag

NOTE: This taxon and chalconotus, stewarti, and onslowi (see below) are closely related, and may indeed be at least allospecies (Schuckard 2006), but see Shirihai (2002) and OSNZ (2010). Worthy and Holdaway (2002) consider this taxon and chalconotus to be relict populations of a formerly widespread single species.
Res NZ (Cook Strait) 645 inds, 102-126 prs in 6 colonies (Schuckard 2006), 687 adults, 112 nests in 9 colonies, 83% at Duffers Reef, North Trios, White Rocks (Bell 2010); extirpated NI after human contact (Worthy 1995).

L. chalconotus Otago Shag
NOTE: The former Stewart Island Shag (including Bronze Shag) L. chalconotos has beem split into this species and L. stewarti (Rawlence et al 2016).
Res NZ (se SI).

L. stewarti Foveaux Shag
Res NZ (s SI, Stewart I 1600-1800 prs).

L. onslowi Chatham Shag
Res Chatham Is 842 prs (Cape Fournier 115, Ke Oreao Pt 7, Pt Weeding 6, Ngatikitiki Rocks 38, Matarakau 53, Okawa Pt 114, Shag Rock 68, Rabbit Island 83, Northeast Reef 19, Star Keys 339, Bell and Bell 2000); 2003-2004 census noted only 271 prs and that Cape Fournier and Shag Rock colonies had disappeared but new colonies were at The Pinnacles, 30 prs, and Kokepa, 15 prs (Bester and Charteris 2005).

L. campbelli Campbell Shag

Res Campbell I 8000 inds. Acc Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002).

L. colensoi Auckland Shag
Res Auckland Is 1000 prs. Acc (juv to adult, one bird 1982-2001) Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001a, 2001b).

L. purpurascens Macquarie Shag
NOTE: Considered by some authors part of L. atriceps Imperial Shag (Christidis and Boles 2008).
Res Macquarie I 760 prs.